Addiction Policies and Service Provision for Ethnic Minorities in Ireland Assignment


1.1 Background of Research:

The population of Ireland is considered as diverse because of their ethnicity and the country of origin as well. Earlier, the no. of people who were living in Ireland was growing continuously and amongst them, 766770 people were outsiders and 300000 people came from the UK and around 450000 people were from other countries as well. Historically, Ireland was considered as a country of emigration as there major population fleeted to the US during the time of recession but after that, the situation changed and the country started accepting immigrants into their country happily (Keegan and et. al., 2017).  In the mid-19th century, the period of Great Famine arrived in Ireland, and due to this; the population was forced to suffer starvation which eventually led people to adopt mass emigration. In the mid-1840s, the population in the country was 6.5 million but in the 20th century, there was a massive decline in the record as the population was now 2.8 million (Wood, et. al., 2015).

During 1991, the country entered the economic growth period, and thus from that time, they started accepting immigrants for the first time in the country. But in 2008 again, the situation of Irish economic and banking crisis arrived, and during that time also the Republic of Ireland experienced Emigration but its rate was less than the rate of immigrants that were entering the country (Maddahian, et. al., 2016).

If the minority groups are discussed then, Irish travelers can be considered as a native ethnic group of the country which was formerly regarded as the Irish state from 1 March 2017. Various communities are residing in a country like Polish, British, Lithuanian, and Latvian. Te ethnic background present there includes Irish as 82.2%, Irish Travelers as 0.7%, other white as 9.5%, Asian as 2.1%, Black as 1.3%, other 1.5% (Wood, et. al., 2015).

It can be said that Ireland continued to grow at a smooth rate, although slower than earlier. But due to emigration, massive Irish people are living in the United States, England, Canada, and Australia with more than 5 million Canadians of Irish descent. It has always been said that the Republic of Ireland is always considered the most popular destination for Immigrants from the last 50 years. The major immigrants come from Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Czech Republic. As per a study conducted in 2015, it was revealed that 1 in 8 people living in Ireland was born abroad.  It is also estimated that in the future also, their population will develop but the development rate will eventually go down. As per the current projections, the annual growth rate of the country will go down from 0.79% in 2020 to 0.43% in 2050. The population of Ireland in 2020 is also projected around 4,887,992 to 5,219,951 in 2030 (Ethnic communities in Ireland, 2020).

In today’s time, Ireland is considered as a place of diversity and multiculturalism. Some so many people belong to different countries are living together as one. It has always been said that this country always welcomes people from different minorities to their country with open arms, unlike other European countries. Although the country also faces many issues by doing this like providing them houses which they can afford or giving services at reasonable prices, all these come like a challenge to Ireland but they always remain welcoming like earlier times. It has been revealed by the researchers that from the past two decades, Ireland is becoming a diverse country by having around 535,475 non-Irish nationals living there who are basically from 200 different nations (Wood, et. al., 2015). The people living there feel that they are of varied ages, different socio-economic backgrounds, follow different customs and beliefs, and speak different languages as well (Moss, et. al., 2015). This dissertation mainly discusses the policies and service provisions made for these people in Ireland. Through this, it will be clear that whether these migrants are being treated on a fair basis there or not.

It has always been a challenge for the researchers to examine the actual use of drugs among the population because people are not ready to come out and reveal that they are using drugs in their daily life or they are an addict. To conduct effective research, information is required to be collected from all the sources whether it’s a small source or big. In Ireland also, it was considered a pretty heavy task to reveal the current drug and alcohol service provisions. There are so many ethnic minority communities living in the country so the extent of drug and alcohol misuse within these communities remains uncertain (Barry and et. al., 2017). The government needs to make sure that the communities which are utilizing it should be known because then only its prevention methods can be revealed. In Ireland, the ethnic data is collected to record the alcohol and drug consumption of different groups and this data is being utilized to inform harm and alcohol policy. The National Drug Treatment Reporting System (NDTRS) is the main database that has information regarding treatment for drug and alcohol misuse. This database is considered very effective as it helps in making various kinds of policies and programs for the prevention of drugs and alcohol from the country completely. But collecting these kinds of data is not easy as there are so many people who are involved in these kinds of abuse and they do not share their experiences in open. But, it becomes the responsibility of the researcher to bring out corrective information for their readers so that accurate results are achieved. In this research, the researcher has used various methods to collect information on the topic but the main one was Interview (Joyce and et. al., 2018). People were interviewed related to the service provisions for the ethnic minorities and the addiction policies as well. The information gained from this source will be of much help as then the real results can be ascertained. It has been seen that the population of Ireland is increasing on a slow basis so it becomes more important to complete this study in less time so that it can be reached to more people and policies and provisions created by the government for this subject should be known to everyone.

1.2 Significance of Research:

During the years, the ethnic minority population of the country is gaining lots of interest of people from all over the world. It has been noted that in Ireland, people are arriving from different ethnic backgrounds and settling in places such as Belfast, Dublin, Dungannon, etc. This dissertation has been conducted to analyze the implications of the situation where so many people of different people are living together and how are the services provisions been handled in the country. The country has shown emote growth in its demography due to the expansion of the already situation small minority groups in Ireland. The ethnic groups who were reportedly found to be living in the country were Chinese, Pakistani, Indian, and Travelers. The government of Ireland also came up for the people of ethnic minorities as they made legislations to protect their rights in the country (Van Hout, et. al., 2018). The Irish human rights and equality commission was formed whose work was to protect and promote the human rights and quality provisions in Ireland.

This report will also talk about the addiction habits of the minority group related to drugs and alcohol in Ireland. The most recent Irish census was conducted in 2011 which revealed its total population as 4,588,252 which was a sharp increase of 8.2% from 2006 numbers (Wood, et. al., 2015). The census of 201 has also been taken but its results are yet to be published. Despite having so many cultures among them, most of the people living in Ireland still follow Christianity, particularly the Roman Catholics which are around 84% of the population of the Republic of Ireland. The economy of the country is also considered as one of the strongest in Europe as there has been a constant rise in the wages of people and marl=king zero unemployment rates as well.

Since this research is also about the addiction problems of the immigrants so it needs to be discussed that multiculturalism and diversity are considered as the facts of the modern condition that have a significant impact on the society as well as the country. It can be understood that if people from different community backgrounds are coming together and living their lives together then it’s obvious that their habits, the culture will eventually get mixed. But for the drug abuse, the blame always comes on the foreigners because the stigma attached to the drug abuse is being led by the racial and ethnic stereotypes (Drug and alcohol abuse in Ireland, 2020).

In this research, it will be discussed in detail that Ireland is having a very high consumption rate of alcohol and many people from the country especially Irish are being involved in harmful drinking patterns for long. In 2014, it was disclosed that the Irish drinkers drank 11 liters of pure alcohol each. This amount can be constituted with 29 liters of vodka, 116 bottles of wine, or 445 pints of beer. But, 20.6% of the population of Ireland is completely away from the alcohol so the remaining ones get to drink even more quantity. The situation of the country is even worse because the people here are involved in drugs as well. It is a very serious situation for the country as if the situation would remain the same then the youth of the country will become useless and they will not be able to contribute anything to the development of the country. There has been violence related to drug abuse in the country as well because people started misusing it at a large level (Usage of drugs and alcohol, 2020).

It has also been revealed that the usage of drugs was majorly found in people who came from Central/Eastern Europe, Africa, Pakistan, and Jamaica. In the case of the Irish population, it was seen that cannabis is widely used among the members of the new community and the people who were using did not realize that they are using a highly problematic product. There were also reports that there was the use of dance drugs between the members of the new community which covers Nigerians, Romanians, Russians, Moldovans, Ukrainians (Wood, et. al., 2015). People have also reported that they were on the methadone maintenance program in Dublin.  Therefore, it becomes very important to understand this topic clearly so that it can be assessed that what prevention policies were started by the government of Ireland for improving the situation of the country. It was also significant because the population of Ireland will increase on a steady basis in later years as well so if these addiction habits will not stop here then it might harm the new community people as well.

1.3 Aim of the proposed research

This is considered one of the most important parts of the research project because this is the subject in which the whole research is based (Neale, et. al., 2015). The aim of the research is being chosen by the researcher and then later on studied in a detailed manner as well so that it can be explored incorrect direction. The aim of this research is:

“To explore the existing addiction and drug policies and service provision for ethnic minorities in Ireland”.

1.4 Objectives of the proposed research:

These are considered as the sub-topics of the research program which are being prepared to understand the topic of the research more clearly. The objectives of this research are mentioned below:

  1. To review if the existing policies and guidelines documents for the inclusion element for service provision to ethnic minorities suffering from addiction in Ireland;
  2. To explore experiences of service providers working in addiction services with service users from ethnic minority background;
  3. To identify service providers opinions about the inclusion and equality aspects of service delivery to ethnic minority service users;
  4. To highlight suggestions that service providers would have for the inclusive service delivery policy.

1.5 Dissertation Structure

The structure followed in this dissertation is mentioned below:

  • Chapter 1: Introduction

In this chapter, there will be a discussion on the topic and it will be introduced in this research project. The basic information related to the topic will be shared here so that the readers can get the idea that what are they going to study in this whole report (Neale, et. al., 2015). It will also include the background of the research in which the background of the topic needs to be written in detail. Along with this, the significance of research, rationale, aims, and objectives of the research are also a part of the introduction.

  • Chapter 2: A literature review

In this chapter, the objectives which are created from the aim of the research are required to be discussed in a detailed manner. It eventually helps in understanding the topic in a much detailed manner.

  • Chapter 3: Methods

This is also considered as an important chapter because it includes research methods, designs, and techniques for effectively conducting the research program.

  • Chapter 4: Results

In this chapter, the findings, discussion, and result part of the report are being discussed. Here, there will be involvement of various kinds of tables, charts for deriving results of the report.

  • Chapter 5: Discussion

In this, the findings of the report are being discussed along with the literature review conducted above. It includes the limitations of the report and the conclusion section as well.


This is considered one of the most important parts of the research project because here the discussion is being made on the objectives which are being prepared from the aim of the research. These objectives help in understanding the whole topic in a much easy manner and interpreting the corrective results as well. The discussion is made below:

2.1 To review if the existing policies and guidelines documents for the inclusion element for service provision to ethnic minorities suffering from addiction in Ireland;

According to Delargy, it has been reported that Ireland was having problems with substance misuse. The amount of drug usage in Ireland is increasing at a very fast rate since the past decades and its main impact is on younger people. It has also been stated that many people from the Irish community are suffering from harmful drinking habits and the use of alcohol has been the biggest issue (Wood, et. al., 2015). The usage of the drug was so high that people had started losing their lives because of it. Therefore, the intervention of the government was very necessary for this matter. The main aim of the government of Ireland was to remove the problems of drug and alcohol misuse in the country so that the harm can be reduced. There have been various kinds of strategies that have been prepared relating to this and some of the policies of the government are also implemented to reduce the risk factors for substance misuse (Neale, et. al., 2015). The strategy prepared was to educate the population about the drug and alcohol misuse so that they can understand its seriousness and stops or reduces its usage in their daily lives (Service provisions for drug addicts in Ireland, 2020). This will eventually help the young people to make choices for their future that whether they want to become a drug addict or a normal person having no such addictions and living life without any kind of complications. As per Moran, the strategy prepared also discusses the importance of continuing support for law enforcement to fight organized crime groups that supply illegal drugs into Ireland (Stevens-Watkins, et. al., 2012). The main reason for monitoring the changing illegal drug market, against the background of national, EU, and broader international experience and best practice is that through this the supply can be stopped then people will eventually stop consuming it (Wood, et. al., 2015). The aim of this research is related to the ethnic minority group of people who are staying in Ireland. This report will mainly discuss the alcohol and drug abuse habits of the people of different communities staying there.

Problematic drug use is considered and determined as a global phenomenon. The substantial information and data are available with the help of the European Monitoring center for drug and Drug Addiction regarding drug use among different national groups. As per the view of the International level of countries, drug use was reported among persons among Central/Eastern Europe (Poland, Estonia, Hungary, Romania, and Lithuania) from the former USSR. The National Drugs Strategy 2009 to 2016 was established by the Department of Community Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs.

Ireland’s earlier made strategies for national drugs as well which was implemented during the years from 2001 to 2008 and then 2009 to 2016.  Both the time, the aim of the strategy was the same i.e. reducing the misuse of drugs. It was estimated that it is only possible through supply reduction, prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and research as well. For implementing the strategy earlier, the statutory, community, as well as voluntary sectors, came together as one, and now this time the Drug and Alcohol Task Force (DATFs) is having an important role in this strategy. According to Van Hout and Hearne, It has been estimated that the first drug strategy was introduced in the year 2001 in which people who are having health issues due to overconsumption of alcohol and drug issues are being given proper treatment and a wider range of services as well. The DATFs were providing support for the development and expansion of the integrated and accessible community-based services (Guerrero, et. al., 2015). Through this, the initiative was largely recognized at the local level and harm was reduced little.

In this study, many drug users analyzed that they are stolen and shoplifted to help and support their drug addiction (Wood, et. al., 2015). There were also reported in the African newspaper is that African ethnic community people were involved in drug distribution especially in cocaine dealing and handling. It can be examined that different countries’ ethnic community people stole drugs and dealing in the black market which is illegal at the global level (Westermeyer, 2019). Most of the nation’s development policies and strategies in which drug addiction is a crime and people who consume drugs considered criminals according to the view of international countries.

In a study, it has also been revealed that the use of drugs and alcohol inside the new community is because of Boredom as they refuse the opportunities to work and thus they got the feeling of unemployment which compelled them to take this step. It is also said that the immigrants and the refugees were having a high level of mistrust on the government agencies and they felt that they can be deported ant time and thus this mistrust only stopped them from taking any kind of treatment from the government and obtaining services as well. Apart from this, they also have the stress because they live in hostels and they have no family network or social support which can stop them from using the drugs (Beebe, et. al., 2018). People of different communities are also having fear of insecure legal status so that they consume drugs and alcohol for reducing their stress. So, the strategies which are prepared by the government go well with the issues that the ethnic minorities are facing (Moss, et. al., 2015). This is a very crucial as well as complicated topic because it is very important to know that at what extent drug abuse is happening in that country so that it can be prevented from spreading even more and complex because it is a private topic so people don’t like to speak about it in public (Wood, et. al., 2015). So, it reduces the chances of making this research successful but if the researcher will make use of smart techniques to conduct this study then it will help them in accessing more knowledge related to this subject.

2.2 To explore experiences of service providers working in addiction services with service users from ethnic minority background;

Various people are working on the strategies which are prepared by the government of Ireland for the people who are drug and alcohol addict (Trimble, et. al., 2017). These people are called service providers. When the service providers were interviewed, it was clear that there were addiction issues in some members of the new communities during the Celtic Tiger Era. One of the service providers said that one of the girl’s husbands was very highly addicted to drugs and thus eventually he ended up in prison and was later on deported. He was earlier a seller of drugs and later on took them himself (Mayock, et. al., 2015). Another service provider described that they were treating people from Nigeria, Somalia and there was a group of people who used to hang around us and they were, later on, came out as Heroin users. The service was non-threatening and first, the people are made comfortable, and then only they are pushed for the treatment.

According to Davoren, it was discussed that even though the people here belong to various kinds of Ethnic minorities that are either consuming or dealing in drugs or heavy alcohol, but only very few of them dared to come for the treatment. It was also revealed that the people who belong to new communities normally used to struggle for availing the treatment services available for them in the respective area.  They were having trust issues and thus they were not ready to come up for the treatment there.

The service providers also discuss the patterns in which the drugs and alcohol were being consumed by the patients. They described that a combination of cannabis, tablets, and alcohol is being used very popularly among young people (Darker, et. al., 2016). This is a very harmful combination but it is being consumed by the people on a high basis. They also revealed that the people who are from Eastern Europe are more inclined towards alcohol abuse but the people of African communities use more of cannabis (Addiction policies for ethnic minorities in Ireland, 2020).

According to the view of the American government, they have considered their drug law as being racist where they have a disproportionate influence on the minority communities. There are around 90% of such serving time for drug offenses in America that are from Black and minority ethnic groups of people (Copemann, et. al., 2015). Irish drug strategy is to not refer to the new societies and similar to the policymakers in Germany, Spain and Sweden have failed to highlight drug use among the different minority ethnic people.

As per the view of Kulesza, et. al., (2016) one of the most important issues that the service providers are required to take care of is that they need not mix the identities of the clients and individually treat each of the clients. It is because many people have overlapping identities as well that mix them with multiple cultural and social groups. Like a Nigerian can also be a second-generation Irish or anyone else. So, it is always advised to the service providers that they should remain careful and should not mistake the patient’s culture and value based on their race or ethnicity. To escape from this situation, it is advised that they should treat every patient as a person who is unknown to them completely. Indulging in culture or race can put the service providers in trouble (Steiner, et. al., 2019). The service provider’s role is also to maintain the identity of the patient private if they want but the new community people are totally in disbelief of the government and thus they do not trust the service providers in any manner. There is no possible way also through which they can be convinced because then it will be considered as a forceful act which is against the policy grounds.

According to Van Hout, there are other reasons as well which were mentioned related to people who need the treatment. It is stated that people sometimes hesitate to take help related to drug-related services and they are also unaware that what these services offer. It was also revealed by various drug users that they did not consume the services because they had a fear that they will have to face racism either from the client’s side of the worker’s side. So, the experience of the service providers with the service users of an ethnic minority was quite interesting as they got to experience different kinds of people coming up with different kinds of issues (Jainchill, et. al., 2017).

2.3 Identify service providers’ opinions concerning the inclusion and equality aspects of service delivery to ethnic minority service users

According to the view of O’Donnell, et. al., (2016) The service providers share an opinion in the relation for inclusion and equality aspects of service delivery to the ethnic minorities service users of Ireland in such a manner that the professional ethics of service providers do not provide any space for them to show or declare any discrimination between the service users of Ireland whether their cultural background is Irish or not. The service providers in Ireland demand the self-acknowledgment of the cultural background of the ethnicity of the service users; to treat the users in the manner of the defined codes and conducts of health laws. The inclusion and equality of the service delivery for the ethnic minorities consider the patients all community as equal and included in the welfare programs and service delivery in Ireland (Jones, et. al., 2017). The ethnic minorities are identified by the service providers as per their opinion concerning inclusion and equality for the service delivery aspects in case of drug addiction in Ireland. The act of discrimination based on ethnic background and cultural identity is being prohibited in Ireland as per the act of racial equality directive. This act was adopted in the whole European region as per the data collection equality and service providing for the ethnic minorities in Ireland. These laws were implemented for the betterment in the opinions of the service providers as per the inclusion and equality of the ethnic minorities in Ireland for service delivery aspects.

The international viewpoint on the situation of the service providers and the service users is similar to the viewpoint of the Ireland state. The service providers do not think about the background of the service users and service providers give services to the drug addicts in Ireland which are mainly belong to the other communities of the entire world which are using the services of the service providers in Ireland (Wood, et. al., 2015).

In the opinion of Patel, et. al., (2016) law defined combat with the discrimination and shows effects in the principle of equal treatment for the ethnic minorities of Ireland. The service providers are trained in such a way that they only see the service users and not mind their ethnic community and background at the time of service providing. They include and show equality for the service users in Ireland and do not show any kind of discrimination for the service users. The Irish human rights and equality commission act of 2014 states the public duty for the relation of human rights and equality. The public of Ireland must eliminate discrimination in the society of service providers and service users of Ireland. The public duty also defines the promotion of equality purposes of the community and protects the human rights of all the people in Ireland who require the service providers for any kind of service whether they are regular nationality or any ethnic in Ireland (Braucht, et. al., 2019).

The public duty and the laws of the federal governments make the opinion of the service providers with the inclusion and equality of the ethnic minorities of service users in Ireland. The service providers must treat the patients without asking and caring about the personal details of service users (Best, et. al., 2015). The service providers need to maintain the human touch between the service users and service providers which lead towards their opinion of non-discrimination and equality among the ethnic minorities and other nationalities in the state of Ireland. The public dominates in the duty towards the law of equality and non-discrimination among the society where every human is first considered as a human and not as any national representative. The Irish laws define nine grounds for discrimination which include race, ethnic origin, membership for indigenous ethnic minority, and Irish travelers. Ireland is increasing in diversity and offering shelter to the different communal background with non-discriminated and equality in a society which makes easier for the diversity to fulfill their need in a great manner (Weisner, et. al., 2019). The service providers serve the ethnic minority in the service delivery as per the public duty of the inclusion and equality in the health services for drug addiction and other health-related services. The other European countries provide different kinds of service provider’s ethics and rules in their land. the view on Ireland’s service providers regulations are different from the other European countries like Britain, Germany, and France which serves the drug addicts of ethical minorities based on their community background and various rules and regulations are being considered in dealing with them, unlike Ireland where the service providers provide health services to the service users without any questions asked.

In the words of Sewell, et. al., (2017)The service providers need to include and show equality for the ethnic minorities of Ireland as per the law and their professional ethics in which the service providers should not discriminate about the service delivery user’s community and nationality. The service providers will provide their services to the service users in their opinion which do not involve the question regarding the relation of inclusion and equality for the service users. The service providers will offer services as human rights to the ethical minorities of Ireland and also as the public duty which promotes equality in society and eliminates any kind of discrimination in the society concerning the health services to the people of Ireland (Knight, et. al., 2016). The service providers will include the ethnic minorities in the law of health services as in their opinion every human should be available with the best health services without thinking about any kind of discrimination of race and community (Lea, et. al., 2017). The service users will gain the health services for their drug addiction and other needs for the betterment in the health facility in Ireland without thinking about the ethnic religion and community of the people who are using the health services from the opinion of the service providers of Ireland which serve with inclusion and equality.

As per the view of Wiessing, et. al., (2017) It is the main responsibility of the service providers is to treat every patient who is suffered from any disease and they have to provide good care. They are equally treating all the people whether they belong to ethnic communities or not. The service providers’ opinion towards delivering care and treatment to such community people is the same as per the other community individuals. There is no difference in their thoughts and they are work on reduces the addiction of drugs and alcohol among people of Ireland especially in the ethnic minority communities (Ford, et. al., 2017). Along with this, it is required for the service provider is to analyze their wants and requirements according to this provide treatment to them. They are given their opinions in a positive way concerning the communities and their healthcare services in a proper manner. Also, they are serving the best care to their patients and aware of them regarding the disadvantages of drugs and alcohol to their health.

2.4 Suggestions that service providers would have for the inclusive service delivery policy

According to the view of Hser, et. al., (2015) the service providers focus on providing suggestions that would have for the inclusive service delivery policy. They are concentrating on reviewing the drug-related policies and service provision in Ireland and also understand the policies and facility provision for addiction for ethnic societies in the country. It is important for workers who provide service to the drug-addicted ethic community is required to gives some suggestions to the inclusive service delivery policy which helps the drug-addicted people in Ireland and live a better life. The service providers play an important role in delivering to the designing, planning, and implementing effective services through which ethnic communities able to leave their drug addiction. The service providers are mainly involved in the development and design of facilities which is the core goal of the drug policy (Shattuck, et. al., 2016). The inclusive service delivery policy defines as the conscious choice which ensures that every person feels welcome and accepted in the community. When individuals feel involved so they contribute, participate, and express themselves freely. Diversity helps in making that better and stronger person where everyone feels free to perform their service and deliver the best policies related to drug addiction and many more. The various countries in Europe and other international countries like America and Australia have various viewpoints in the inclusion of service delivery issues for the ethical minority communities in their nation just like Ireland. There are variations in the policies and procedures for service delivery at this international level which is quite different from the policies offered in Ireland.

The service users are such people who use social and health care facilities from providers in a better also involve such individuals who are desired users of health services and social care interferences including drug-addicted people and who do not understand the policies associating with drugs (Mora, 2020). There are some suggestions which would have for the inclusive service deliver policies are described as under:

  • Provide instructions and guidance to support the Minister of State in the formulation of a new National Drugs Strategy from 2017 onwards.
  • Need to formulate a combined public health method to substance misuse that is outlined as a dangerous use of a psychoactive substance which includes illicit and alcohol drugs, also incorporates the accurate suggestions of other associated policies include National Substance Misuse Strategy.
  • Require to analyze the relevance of current strategy in dealing with current nature and extent of issues drug uses in Ireland which includes emerging trends and other problems concern to the available investigation.
  • Should examine the development and growth in drug policies and also recognize the global best practice in the handling of such drug issues especially at the EU and international level.
  • Review and examine the operational effectiveness of the structure and coordinated methods of the National Drugs Strategy that includes NACDA, NCC, OFD, NDRIC, and DATF and carry out a SWOT analysis on the partnership approach.
  • Ireland’s government needs to make changes and modifications in their current drug policies which help them in maintaining stability and existence in their laws.

These are some suggestions that are provided by service providers for the inclusive service delivery policy in Ireland (Newcomb, et. al., 2016). Apart from this, service providers play an essential in developing the social abilities, wellbeing, and resilience of other individuals.

As per the view of Edmundson, et. al., (2018) Service providers are involved in the care or treatment plan of every addicted people; they are bound with the communities and prefer treatment first. Service providers do not treat the person based on their religion or caste, every suffered individual is considered as patients in their eye and they do not divide them based on the communities or societies. They give suggestions and advice to Ireland government is to focus on patient safety and quality which is the main core of the treatment in the current time. Along with this, health practitioners’ are guided by their code of ethics and conducts and also assure patient safety, they require governance, leadership, and clinical commitment (Oetting, et. al., 2018). The service providers are involved in the care of service users and delivery policy which accurately assist users. Through this, the involvement of participants in the local services is increased. Also, services provided to service users along with the opportunity to deliver a constructive response on both positive and negative experiences of attending the facilities. HSE needs to develop a plan which should be undertaken as a service user experience survey and analyze the findings or results.

The service provider’s inclusion policy in other countries outside Ireland like Germany, France, Britain, America, and Australia are working on new policies and procedures in the way of drug addiction service providers of the community minorities of the ethical region (McLaughlin, et. al., 2017). Ireland is serving the ethical minorities without any questioning about their background and community region but on the international level, this kind of discrimination based on someone’s ethical background and main minorities in any country are dealing with the issues of drug addiction and service provider’s indulgence in treating them as humans (Carter, 2020). Thus the international viewpoint in the inclusion of the service providers in the policies is quite different from what is seen in Ireland and its local administration.

In the opinion of Dingle, et. al., (2015) Service providers require suggesting to participate in the local, regional, and national decision-making structure of the strategy. They are plays an important role in making sure about the delivery and design of alcohol and drug treatment facilities that assist in reach with the needs of drugs and alcohol problems in ethnic minority communities. There are a various large association, organization, networks provide this platform for the service providers is to raise their voice and ensure that there is the effective engagement of policies and maintain it properly (De, et. al., 2017). It is important for the Ireland government is to concentrate on existing and new policies that assist and support in maintaining strategies related to drug treatment. In this, service providers play a vital part in handling all the community of people and provide care to them without any discrimination. The research mainly focuses on exploring the current addiction and drug policies and service provision for ethnic minorities in Ireland.

In the words of Chatwin, et. al., (2017)Service providers focus on maintaining treatment and providing proper care to each people who are addicted to drugs and alcohol. They also give suggestions to the inclusive service delivery policy that ensures the development of drug policies by the government and needs to do some changes which are required. In addition to this, the government of Ireland concern about the treatment process and develop effective policies that are helpful for addicted people (Floyd, et. al., 2017). The government requires conducting a program where they analyze the number of addicted individuals to drugs and alcohol in the ethnic minority communities. With the assistance of this, they can easily examine and evaluate the number of addicted people from misuse substances that are harmful to their health. Service providers help and support the government in spreading awareness regarding not using drugs and alcohol as it creates a negative impact on human health and wellbeing.


3.1 Research Methodology

The research methodology is a vital part of the development and evaluation of the research as it assists in identifying different types of methods that are required to study and applied to collect appropriate data and take suggestive activities (Witkiewitz, et. al., 2019). The investigation is mainly based on how information has been collected and processed based on research needs and requirements. It can be observed that data can be related to the substance and drug addiction among the ethnic minorities’ community people (Castro, et. al., 2020). The research is conducted at primary and secondary levels to capture the main aspects which influence and relative actions that are taken with them. it can be an integral step for the formulation of the effective research method which can assist in collecting in-depth knowledge regarding the addiction of drugs among the ethnic communities people in Ireland and other countries (Nowotny, 2015). The research methodology is based on both existing and historical data which directly influence the current issues and problems. There are different technologies and research methodologies that are used to gather and examine the data and also deliver resources in a better manner.

It is the process and methods which are used to identify, procedure, analyze, examine, and select the data and information regarding the topic. In the research, the methodology part allows the readers to critically determine and evaluate the study’s overall reliability and validity in a better manner. The knowledge and details from the analysis are presented that enabled to properly evaluate and understand the report (Amaro, et. al., 2015). It assists in understand the critical documents and information which had collected and gathered to execute the project. This study is mainly focused on the addiction of drugs and alcohol among the ethnic monitory people. This method observed to be required as it enables us to obtain and collect all the required data from particular topics. In this segment, some specific evaluation and analysis strategies have focused on systematically gathering knowledge (Prendergast, et. al., 2018). With the assistance of proper tools and techniques, researchers will be capable of collecting and gathering specific data and information in a better manner.

3.2 Research Method

A research method is a combination of tools and techniques which assist in the collection of information through distinct sources like the internet etc. Research methods are the procedures, strategies, and techniques used in the gathering of data for analysis to uncover the new data and information and also develop a better understanding of specific topics (Anglin, et. al., 2018). Two forms of research methods involve qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative method is considered a secondary investigation tool that is used to evaluate and understand the past available data and researches are based on existing requirements of the research (Anglin, et. al., 2018). In this study, it is necessary to have some common knowledge regarding the addiction of drugs among the ethnic people. These techniques learned different journals and articles that are required to analyze the whole facilities which are related to the investigation and make a subsequent evaluation of theory and provides non-numerical data analysis tools (Soto, et. al., 2015). Such methods help in providing in-depth understanding and theoretical evaluation to deliver accurate results based on them. There are various sources which help in collecting data and information such as books, journals, magazines, case study, newspaper and so more.

On the other hand, the quantitative research method is the type of research methodology that is mainly used in the research approach in which there is a requirement to deliver the numerical and measurable outcomes according to the existing needs of an investigation (Gossop, et. al., 2020). Such type of research methodology is systematic and it has well measurement research data factors that are related to them. This study is based on various forms of research applied in these procedures. The use of statistical need and data collection process is based on various models or hypotheses and it is used in entire processes (Lê Cook, et. al., 2019). Along with this, the evaluation and determination of the data can be completed with the help of conducting surveys and observation methods that recommended the process, and effective results are based on research (Blume, 2016). The significance of summary and collective methods has been addressed in this investigation. To collect and gain deep knowledge regarding any issue, the methodology provides an original platform of numeric which applies the procedure and collects relevant information in a better manner.

In this research, both qualitative approaches are used. The quality material is going to use. The qualitative technique includes an assessment of appropriate resources and interviews with an appropriate person which can provide reliable and value data (Gossop, et. al., 2020).

3.3 Research Approach

It is that approach that has been used in gathering and obtaining important data to analyze the accurate direction for the study in a better manner. There are various forms of research approach which include inductive and deductive (Anglin, et. al., 2018). The deductive approach had already involved in developing and forming theories from such ideas and gathering investigation to assess the observations. It is determined by developing a hypothesis that is based on current models and theory and then it helps in designing and developing an investigation strategy to test the hypothesis. It involves in beginning and start of the theory, designing the hypotheses from such theory and model and then analyze the data to examine these hypotheses. The deductive approach can be described by the means of hypotheses that can be derived from the propositions of the theory (Prendergast, et. al., 2018). The deductive approach follows the direction and path in a logical way. it takes steps that are described for the inductive research and reverse their orders. This method helps in collecting common knowledge regarding the analysis of the addiction to drugs among ethnic communities’ people (Lê Cook, et. al., 2019).

The inductive approach is a rational and careful procedure which mainly involves in different hypotheses, coupled to accomplish the specific conclusions. The research has concentrated on using the deductive method for forming the hypotheses and operates the whole research in a better way. The topic mainly focuses on analyzing the addiction of drugs and alcohol in the ethnic minority communities (Zapolski, et. al., 2017). The inductive approach begins with the observations and theories which are planned to the end of the research procedure as a result of the explanations. In this research, an investigator starts by gathering and collecting the data which are accurate to the topic of interest.

In this study, the deductive approach has been used by the researcher which helps in collecting and gathering accurate evidence and knowledge for the judgment of the research (Witkiewitz, et. al., 2019). The main limitation of this tool is that investigator could not use the stronger, more successful models and theory. It can help an individual immediately increasing uncertainty and difficulties.

3.4 Research Philosophy

Research philosophy is the belief regarding the way where data about a phenomenon should be collected, gathered, examined, and used properly. This section is essential for the study which assists in concluded the thesis and selecting the right theory that helped in achieving key goals and objectives (Floyd, et. al., 2017). It has been determining that there are various forms of the philosophy of research which include positivism and interpretivism. This philosophy mainly concentrates on identifying and recognizing the impact of addiction on drugs in the ethnic community people in Ireland (Anglin, et. al., 2018).

Positivism philosophy is that term which is used to explain and describes an approach to the study of community which relies on scientific document and evidence, which includes experiments and statistics to reveal the true nature of hoe society is regulated and operated. As a philosophy, positivism adheres to the view which is only determined as factual knowledge and it gains with the help of observation (Amaro, et. al., 2016). This is that term which is mainly used to describe and explain an approach to the study and helps in maintaining and managing business operations.

Interpretivism philosophy is also known as interpretivism that includes researchers to interpret components of the study. Interpretivist approach is mainly based on the realistic method of data collection that includes interviews and observations. Secondary data research is famous for interpretivism philosophy (De, et. al., 2017).

In this study, the researcher has been used Interpretivism philosophy that helps in gaining accurate illustrations in gathering the required statistics and knowledge. Along with this, the approach assists in achieving certain awareness of people correctly (Carter, 2020). This philosophy provides information regarding drug addiction among ethnic communities people Ireland.

3.5 Research design

The research design is the plan to answer the research questions. Research design ensures about the information and data are obtained which will assist in answer the research question in an effective way (Oetting, et. al., 2018). In this, the researcher should draw an accurate structure with the assistance of this method. There are different forms of research design that includes the descriptive and exploratory design of research (Kulesza, et. al., 2016). The descriptive research is being used to describe and explain the knowledge and information collected; on the other hand, the exploratory technique is being used to collect new data and facts (Amaro, et. al., 2015). In this investigation, the researcher has used an exploratory method for collecting and collecting data that are associated with the addiction to drugs and alcohol. With the help of an exploratory method, the investigator has capable of exploring and analyzing the new information and facts regarding the investigation topic in a better manner (Newcomb, et. al., 2016). The descriptive study is the observational research that evaluates and describes the pattern of happening occurrence concerning the variables that include individual, place, and time. It is often the initial stage or initial inquiry in the new topic, situation, and event (Castro, et. al., 2020). It is the scientific technique which mainly included in observing and determining the behavior of the subject without influencing it in each manner. Whereas the exploratory research design does not aim to provide and deliver the final and conclusive answers to the investigation questions, but it discovers the research topic with different levels of depth (Lea, et. al., 2017). This method helps in understanding and evaluating the research and underlying the opinions, ideas, and thoughts of an individual. It also provides insights into the issue and assists in developing ideas and hypotheses for the desired quantitative investigation.

In this study, exploratory research design helps in collecting data and information for completing the research and gains the required knowledge about the addiction of drugs among the ethnic community people in Ireland (Wood, et. al., 2015).

3.6 Thematic analysis

Thematic analysis is a widely used method of analysis in qualitative research. Braun and Clarke (2012) stated that thematic analysis is the underpinning method of analysis which required be describing and outlining to setting its position in the qualitative research (Braun, et. al., 2012). It can be used to examine both small and large data sets and it is claimed to be well-matched with the phenomenology which mainly concentrates on participants’ subjective experiences and sense-making (Ho, et. al., 2017). The thematic analysis is the tool and method of analyzing the qualitative data in the research. It is mainly applied to set the texts, such as interview transcripts. The researchers of this study closely examine and evaluate the entire data to identify common themes, topics, ideas, and patterns of meaning that are come up repeatedly (King, et. al., 2016). In this study, the researcher has been selecting qualitative analysis as there is a limitation in finding a large number of samples within the period as the response rate for the survey is comparatively low (Cassol, et. al., 2018). The researcher also thinks that face to face interviews assist in understands the verbal and non-verbal factors of the conversation. With the assistance of this method, the researcher could easily develop themes and analyze the interview results accurately (Benner, 2015).

3.7 Data collection methods and tools

Data collection is that technique and method whose main aim is to gather and collect the required knowledge associated with the specific topics. It has been observed that study styles required assessment which assists in evaluating and determine the sources from which data and information are attained (Maddahian, et. al., 2016). Along with this, there are two forms of data collection methods that include primary and secondary data in a better way (Ulmer, 2017). The primary technique mainly focuses on gathering and attaining the new knowledge whereas the secondary method has been used the existing data and information to execute the appropriate knowledge (McLaughlin, et. al., 2017). The primary method is used for exploring the research and collects original information from the selected respondents and gain their potential opinions and views properly. There are various sources of the primary tool which includes a questionnaire, interview, database, surveys and so more (Stevens-Watkins, et. al., 2012). On the other hand, the secondary method is used for collecting second-hand materials and information for completing and developing the research report in a proper manner. Some of the sources of gathering secondary techniques that involve books, magazines, journals, newspaper, case study, and many more.

In this study, the researcher has been used primary and secondary tools that help in collecting and gathering accurate data in a better way. Such methods assist in obtaining and gathering appropriate data to complete the research (Guerrero, et. al., 2015). Secondary data used for performing literature review and primary for conducting interviews.

3.8 Data analysis

Data analysis is the process that is used to collect, select, transform, and modeling the data to explore the useful and relevant data for business decision making. The main motive of the data analysis is to extract and discover information and make the decision which is based on the data examination in a better manner (Westermeyer, 2019). It is important for the researcher is to understand and evaluate the issue which is facing in an organization and also analyze the data effectively. Data analysis interprets, presents, and organizes the data into relevant data that provides in the context of information. This is that approach is considered an essential segment and it can assist in gathering accurate data and information (Ørngreen, et. al., 2017). To collect the required opinions and points of view of the participants regarding some questions related to the specific topic. In this research, the questionnaire tool has been selected for the collection of relevant data. The answer has assisted in consider analyzing the addiction of drugs and alcohol in the ethnic community of people. The data collects and gathers describe some sort of the topic summary that is accurate to segment on collecting data (Beebe, et. al., 2018). The primary data collection technique has been used in this investigation and gathers information that helps in interpreting the thematic analysis. It is that procedure which helps in applying statistical and logical tools to explain and evaluate the data in a proper way. In addition to this, it is required for the researcher is to focus on analyzing the impact of drug and alcohol addiction in the ethnic community of people.

3.9 Research Strategy

The research strategy associated with the step by step execution plan that guides the processing data and structural study condition. There are different forms of tools which are tests, case studies, and pools (Trimble, et. al., 2017). A survey is the quantitative knowledge of the collection method which is concentrated on statistical and it is used to gather data and information from a group of people. On the other hand, the interview applied to the observational data analysis technique where the evidence and documents from their point of view have been attained from the survey (Dumay, et. al., 2015). The limitation of this method is that it is time consuming and expensive tool which assists in collecting accurate data for developing the research report. The researcher requires such data which helps in gathering data with the assistance of the development of appropriate framework and process. The data does not monitor and supervised as per the current rules and regulations by using the quantitative methodological approach (Copemann, et. al., 2015).

3.10 Timeline

This study mainly focuses on conducting multiple investigation work within a specific time. To achieve the research aim, a new set of revolutionary strategy must be formed and executed properly. There could be some accurate framework in this so that the chances of mistakes and errors are immediately reduced (Steiner, et. al., 2019). The main motive of this research is to develop the Gantt chart which helps in developing and forming the chronology study. There are some sorts of the graph which would enable the investigator to shape the reasonable project action plan. Along with this, the Gantt chart is useful and helpful for scheduling the tasks and different activities. This supports the researcher to determine and evaluate the time which must take by the proposal, identify required performance, and maintain the sequence whereas the investigator performs effective roles and responsibilities (Jainchill, et. al., 2017). Also, they work to control and manage cross tasks and reduce the possibility of uncertainties and risks. With the assistance of an accurate Gantt chart and timeline the researcher that has capable to complete the work within a given time frame.

3.11 Ethical considerations

In this, the researcher will ensure that various research practices bring out a legal and acceptable way. If an investigator struggles to attain the predictions and assumptions, it could not have executed and implemented properly (Braucht, et. al., 2019). The emphasis of such research would be drawn for arrangements not to pass the respondent’s data and private information to any other member. It is an important rule of the selected participants is to follow the ethical standards which must be incorporated to make sure the reporting transparency. Copyright Act 1976 has been deemed to safeguard the material which is attained and gained from academic reviews and publications along with the Data Protection Act 1998 (Taherdoost, 2016). The main plan for conducting this investigation is being carried out for keeping in mind the various factors of two acts. All the gathered and collected data is protected and prevented from outside the control of external deliverables properly. In addition to this, the outcome of such research is not used for any other motive (Weisner, et. al., 2019). The entire tasks of the investigation have been conducted logically and ethically. With the assistance of such ethical considerations, the researchers make sure that accurate and proper results are drawn out effectively.

3.12 Limitations

To conduct the research, certain limitations are faced while the development and analysis of some factors that are related to the research properly (Fletcher, 2017). The requirement to examine and gather effective limitation is required to reduce the possible and strong results associated with the similar and also develop changes according to the needs. The research analysis has been needed to observe the influence of addicted drugs among ethnic society people in Ireland and the rest of the countries (Mora, 2020). Some of the main research limitations which need to be focused by the investigator that includes:

  • The respondents of the population deliver the knowledge which is based on existing factors and deliver related data based on their opinion and thoughts.
  • Selection of appropriate sample population that is gives appropriate response and reviews
  • Selection of an effective technology helps in providing in-depth analysis for gathered data and deliver necessary resources and get research results
  • The other limitation was choosing an effective number of factors that can help in a study about the addiction to the drugs and alcohol present in the ethnic community people in Ireland. In certain cases, selected participants were either not interested or not providing their responses and it makes data analysis more complex.
  • Limited availability of time, inadequate financial resources are available and uncertainty in a future collection.


Interview method:

Q1. What are your experiences of working with service users from ethnic minorities in Ireland?

1st Interviewee:

My experience of performing working with the service users from the ethnic community of people in Ireland is good but there are some challenges faced while delivering such services. I think ethnic minorities work for getting a good job but they cannot able to get the opportunities because of the addiction to drugs. Some of the young people also consume drugs which may impact harm and damage to their body at a young age. It has been analyzed that no company hires drug-addicted people whether they belong to an ethnic community or any other. They do not appoint and hire such candidates who always consume drugs and addicted to this substance which creates a negative impact on their health and mental status (Vulser, et. al., 2015). The service providers are delivering the best services to the addicted people who consume drugs and such people mainly belong to the ethnic community of Ireland. The providers are used and adopt policies that are developed by the government and follow such while treating the people. Also, they are performing effective functions and activities as per the required rules and regulations in a proper manner. The providers of services are focus on analyzing the drug-addicted limits in which limit they consume drugs and according to this, they treat them well with appropriate medicines and therapies.

2nd Interviewee:

My experience of working with the service user from ethnic minorities in Ireland is great. I think per head of the population probably is minorities in Ireland and they belong to a different part of the countries such as Africa. Some are from India and Pakistan who live in Ireland. I observed that most of the people are addict to drug and alcohol which damage and harm their life and create a negative impact on their health and wellbeing (Stahler, et. al., 2018). They are face issue in Ireland such as they do not get any support from their families which make difficulties for them and it develops complex life for them in this country. Their families do not contact them which feel them homeless and this impacts their mental health. I observed that most people face physical and mental health issues in the ethnic community group of people. Service users are focus on analyzing the ethnic community people behavior and how they react to the situation.

3rd Interviewee:

My experience of working with service users from the ethnic minorities in Ireland was quite different as many people come from different parts of the world like Africa and Asia. The experience for the ethnic minorities in Ireland was quite the heck as the minorities are belonging to the major parts of Africa and other parts of Europe. My experience was quite different in terms of services. There are very good services available for the service users of minority ethnic groups in which there are various tests assessments are taken for the future aspects. I observed various techniques being used in the service users who are helping the ethnic minorities at the service center (Ireland, et. al., 2015). The experience in working with the Irish people group was different as they are marginalized in the group as they are different in the stigma of jurisdiction, in terms of the action of working for homeless people who are being removed by their families, etc. they are also seemed different to me as in terms of network, connection and talking to people. The people who do not have support from their families are being treated well by the service users of an ethnic minority in Ireland.

4th Interviewee:

I have 10 years of experience in wording in the drug addict services for service users. There are majorly people in the ethnic community service center for drug addiction. I have seen many people in the service user’s community of ethnic culture from Poland. I have on average seen 3 people from India in the ethnic community service users who are being addicted to the drugs. I have also seen people from Jamaica and Africa in the centers for the drug addict people from the ethnic community. The discrimination in the center is very big but not necessarily about the ethnic minorities (Leonard, et. al., 2016). The institution has belonged to religious beliefs. The wealthy people and the men are being treated better than others. It is not being based on the ethical community. Five or six years before the situation on discrimination in the service centers was worse but it is being improved at a high rate. The rate of discrimination is not being decided by the community background of the ethnic communities. The discrimination is being done based on wealth and gender in the service center of Ireland in the drug addiction center. The experience was quite different from being working in any other part of the service center.

5th Interviewee:

I was not working with the ethnic monitories community of people. I have never directly with the ethnic monitories and I am working with the traveler community. They are considered as an Irish ethnic minority group (Martins, et. al., 2015). Travelers lived normally, moving from one place to another and followed their family routes around the region in Ireland and looking for work and visiting different places. Travelers’ community mortality rate is very high as per my opinion. I think the government should focus on this situation and secure their life. 

Q2. What is your opinion on the inclusive aspect of ethnic minorities and drug policies and services in Ireland?

1st Interviewee:

I think Irish travelers’ community experiences severe marginalization, discrimination, poverty, and compromised health. It has been indicated that a distinct lack of structural evaluating and understanding of travelers’ negotiation of issues with the dominant societal norms and values. The prejudiced experiences, low level of recognized trust, and the influx of drug activities in travelers’ societies are contributing to the neutralization of drug-taking risk and formulation of normative and mutual relationships in drug-related activities (Leavey, et. al., 2016). The inclusive aspects are related to the ethnic minority and also manage the drug policies and services which are offered in Ireland.

2nd Interviewee:

Well, I am perfectly honest and I think that some services are not deal with people and this does not support the addicted people in Ireland. The given policies and legal imperative and the support of an advocacy organization present some ethnic minorities. Ireland provides an essential context where the study of ethnic equality and analyses the inclusive aspect of ethnic minorities of people (Reddon, et. al., 2018). I think minorities cannot able to gain the support of their families due to reluctance and this will create a negative impact on their living as well as influence on health. We need to take the support of the migrant support service which helps in maintaining the facilities.

3rd Interviewee:

To be completely honest, I must say that the inclusive aspect of ethnic minorities and drug policies and services in Ireland are quite good as per on the terms of social services and serving the drug addict people without any background check for their personal information. I think this is great concerning the policies and services for the ethnic minorities where there is no need for the information about any one’s personal information before getting services from the drug addict policies and services in Ireland (Shah, et. al., 2015). The policies of Ireland are in my sense are very effective which performs the basic duty of humans in which they do not discriminate about the race and color of the service users in Ireland. But I think sometimes there is required to be information provided to the service providers for the treatment of the ethnic minorities in Ireland. The polices and services of Ireland about the ethnic minorities and drug policies and services that see people as humans and provide them with the best health care facilities as much as possible. And it also proves the social etiquette of the nation and I think we should be proud of these aspects in the inclusion policies of Ireland.

4th Interviewee:

I think that the inclusive aspect of ethnic minorities and drug policies and services in Ireland are only on paper records. There is no reality in the inclusion aspect of the ethnic minorities and drug policies and services in Ireland. The ground situation is very different from the situation of the policies and procedures for the ethnic community’s drug addiction (Dillon, 2018). There is no realism in the situation of the ethnic minorities and drug policies and services in Ireland are only on the paper. The situation of the policies for ethnic minorities is very bad on the ground. There is no proper execution of the drug policies and services in Ireland for the ethnic minorities. They are being suffered from the situation of drug addiction. The ethnic minorities are not coming forward to the service centers of drug addiction which is a big problem in Ireland. This should be improved for the ethnic minorities’ perspective in Ireland.

5th Interviewee:

I think people from all over the world are included. It has been analyzed that most of the people who lived in Ireland are belongs to India. According to my opinion, inclusive aspects of the ethnic monitories are focus on accepting the policies related to drugs and services. The government develops appropriate drug policies and services that help in managing the ethnic community of people’s life.

Q3. What are the challenges you had been facing while providing the addiction services to the service users from the ethnic minorities?

1st Interviewee:

I think the major challenge which had been facing while providing the addiction services to the service users from the ethnic minorities. The language barrier is a key challenge that may create an issue in front of service providers when they require communicating with the service users in Ireland. The country people do not understand the other language which creates a major issue in gaining services in a better manner (Guiney, 2018). The providers are mainly focused on interpreting their communication to the users which helps them in understanding the use of addiction. The service providers provide suggestions to their users regarding drug addiction and it is evaluated that ethnic minorities are consumed more drugs which may create a negative influence on their health. This is important for the service providers are to hire a candidate who interprets the language which can be understandable by ethnic minority and they can easily evaluate what they said. The providers advise addicted people regarding not using drugs in more quantity as it may bad impact on people’s mental and wellbeing.

2nd Interviewee:

The major challenge would be someone in the legal concrete and some service that may not want to provide to the ethnic minorities. There are some other difficulties while providing addiction services to the service users from the ethnic minorities in Ireland that includes cultural differences between the dominant culture and their native culture, sense of displacement. These problems are creating a negative impact on their employment (Van Hout, et. al., 2018). As per my view, culture difference is the major issues which are mainly faced by me and my team members at the time of delivering the best services to the ethnic community of people in Ireland. The ethnic monitories do not understand the culture of the different nations which make difficulties and develop problems while providing some services to the addicted people. The service providers also advise them regarding not using and consume drugs as it will negatively influence their health and mental position as well. When it comes to culture, language and speak and suggest them to join the institutions to interpret and learn the different language which makes easy for them. I think the cultural barrier is the main challenge in front of service providers while they are offer facilities to the minorities of people in Ireland. There are some other countries people also live in this country that belongs to different values, beliefs, and culture. They are followed differ cultures that are related to their religion.

3rd Interviewee:

The main challenge was the variety of ranges of services being provided to the service users in which the service users objecting to the service being provided to them as the treatment for the drug addiction. They are being unnecessarily protective of the culture and rituals of their communities as per the treatment being given to them for the drug addiction. The PPS cardholders being creating unnecessary troubles for the service providers in the path of providing services to the service users for their drug addiction. The ethnic minorities were getting uncomfortable for the providing of PPS cards which can help provide services to them by service providers but they were reluctant and this was developed as a huge challenge in way of service providing for the drug addiction based on the PPS card in Ireland. This is the act of social welfare which is important so it became a challenge as per the difference in the culture and daily needs of communities (Dolphin, et. al., 2015). The difference in the trust and communities culture is being the main reason for the upcoming challenges in the service providing for the drug addiction of the ethnic minorities where they are being treated by the service providers of Ireland as per social welfare and social responsibility without discriminating them from other people of Ireland based on the communal differences. These need to be sorted out in my references.

4th Interviewee:

The language barrier is the most important challenge in working with ethnic minorities in the drug addiction issue for service users. There are reading and writing programs being organized in the service center for the ethnic minorities for the issue of drug addiction in Ireland. The language barrier is the major challenge that I face when working with ethnic minorities while providing service for addiction services to service users. There are also cultural barriers from Ireland and the ethnic minorities which belong to the various parts of the world. These challenges were very huge at the start of working with ethnic minorities but soon the people and staff cooperated in the addiction services for drug relations of the minorities.  The traveling community is feared and aggressive by the actions of the government which has become the main challenge that I have come through on the process of working for the ethnic minorities in the drug addiction in Ireland.

5th Interviewee:

Travelers’ community is very boarded by their culture. There are some challenges which had been facing while providing services to addiction such as housing issue. I was mainly involved with the working and service providing to the traveler’s community people. The language issue is the main challenges which are faced at the time of offering some required services to the ethnic communities’ individuals. I think ethnic minorities people should focus on maintaining their life by leaving drug addiction which may negatively impact their health. Due to more consumption of drugs, most of the people died. In my view, I think communication with such community people is important which helps in understanding the negative influence of drugs on their health and mental status. 

Q4. What would be your recommendations in improving the service delivery for ethnic minorities concerning addiction in Ireland?

1st Interviewee:

I would like to give some suggestions and recommendations for improving service delivery for ethnic minorities with the addiction in Ireland. The government of Ireland needs to appoint spoke person for the community who put appropriate points in regard to this community people. The spoke person of the community plays an important role in getting data and information regarding the ethnic minorities of people to the public and controlling the flow of such information (Kulesza, et. al., 2016). They are work closely with the managers and people relations professionals to draft the statements and press releases, make sure that information is timely and accurate. Such spokespersons focus on communicating with community people and understand their viewpoints and put their points in front of service providers and government for further actions.

2nd Interviewee:

I think we should treat everyone equally and properly provide them appropriate support services. Ethnic community people gain services from the providers who provide them equality treatment and offer services in Ireland (Millar, 2018). I believe that if the government focuses on services providers so this will helps in maintaining and managing their life. In Ireland, most of the people are belongs to different countries such as India, Africa, and other nations. The government also develops effective strategies and policies that help ethnic minority people in Ireland where they treat them equally as the other people. They should focus on delivering services that assist in maintaining their health and conduct institutions where they learn how to free from drug addiction. They need to understand drug addiction is dangerous for their health and damage their life as well as their families.

3rd Interviewee:

Well, in terms of addiction I think that we treat everyone equally. Whether they are from America, India, or any other parts of the world they are treated as equal. We treat them as individuals who are addicted to some or other drugs as they are our country people. I think that the people in authority for the service providing should come forward and offer for help for the sake of social welfare to the people who require help this will improve the service quality being provided to the ethnic minorities (Claffey, et. al., 2017). The people who are homeless, do not have their families with them because of the drug addiction of theirs so I think the coming forward of the management and authority to help people should be done on the forward post of the service providing. We don’t insist on the PPS card but we treat everyone equally on the terms of humanity which is the best way to deal with the addiction in the ethnic minority group in Ireland. I suppose we should understand more about the people and culture or background of the people who come from ethnic minorities to understand the feeling they are going through which is what I think will be best for providing them with drug addiction services improvement.

4th Interviewee:

The understanding of the ethnic minorities should be promoted by the government of Ireland. They needed to be understood where they don’t come forward on their own. The outreach is the ability within the community which aspects the other communities to come in. the government should encourage minorities to come along with them. They need to be understood for the inclusion of the ethnic minorities to represent themselves on their own. They need to be organized on the inner matters (Van Hout, et. al., 2017). They should be improved. The discrimination needs to be focused which declines the inclusion of the ethnic minorities in the larger communities which is the main reason for the drug addiction of the ethnic minorities in Ireland. They are arrogant and fearless which fears discrimination and stop themselves in collaborating in the major issues of Ireland. The issue of ethnic minorities is being treated badly and they are not included in the culture and major community which is a result of racism in Ireland.

5th Interviewee:

In my opinion, there are some recommendations to improve service delivery from ethnic minorities’ community people in Ireland. For this, the government of this country needs to focus on the health issue, an education issue, physical problems, and language issues. This is important for them is to work on maintaining such challenges that can help in improving and maintaining service delivery to the ethnic minorities (Duan, et. al., 2017). The service providers should analyze and examine the ethnic people’s behavior and they assume their behavior change with the consumption of drugs. Most of the individual consume drugs and addicted to it in Ireland.

Q5. Have you any other opinion or information that you would like to add in apart from what you have said?

1st Interviewee:

In my opinion, I would like to add some information which needs to be focused on by community people. The government of Ireland concentrates on maintaining ethnic minorities of people. This is important for service providers are to focus on delivering the best facilities to the users who are addicted to drugs and suffer many diseases. It is essential for the ethnic minority communities’ people who consume drugs which may impact on health and physical body. There are many other countries which are belonging to different nations such as India, Africa and so more.

2nd Interviewee:

I think ethnic minority people need to get support from others and they should not deal with their situation where they are addict to drugs and alcohol. This is creating a negative impact on their body and health. I believe that the government of Ireland should conduct steps which help such community people and they also live their life with full of happiness and no one feels like homeless in the country (Moody, et. al., 2018). It is important for ethnic groups of minorities’ people require focusing on their living standard and other communities’ people do not discriminate against others. In this situation, they can live their life with happiness and motivation to gain job opportunities. I observed that ethnic minority people need to concentrate on the opportunities which they can get by not consuming drugs. The government also working for analyzing the age of the people from the ethnic communities in Ireland who are taking drugs which is dangerous to their health and creates mental issues as well.

3rd Interviewee:

I think the major thing in the service providing for the drug-addicted people who can be done from their welfare is that the service being provided on the time when they are on the verge of becoming drug addicts. It has been seen in the majority of the cases that the drug addiction starts from the situations around an individual and the community background of the individual where they are living (Clark, 2017). The surroundings matters for cases like these in which the people of lower age groups become an addict for drugs. There should be some steps taken on the situation of the people who are on the verge of becoming a drug addict. This way the help will be more beneficial and many lives can be saved from getting destroyed in the smoke of drugs. They should be provided with help when they are needed this will be the best social welfare thing the health community and service providers can do in Ireland.

4th Interviewee:

I would like to say the money should be spending on the ethnic minorities by which they can access the information and resources for their use. They need to be promoted on the media level where someone can represent the ethnic communities or counselor which can represent the communities for their improvement in the inclusion and acceptance of them in the major community of Ireland. The minorities need to be included in the mainstream communities of Ireland. This way the discrimination in the ethnic communities should be stopped by the government and other institutions which is including in the drug addiction support of the ethnic communities in Ireland (Garg, et. al., 2016). There are many loopholes in the community representation and other aspects of the ethnic minorities of Ireland. They are becoming more and more drug addicts from the increasing situation of discrimination and racism in Ireland. The institutions and other people of Ireland need to be involved in representing the ethnic communities of Ireland. In my opinion, discrimination and racism is the most important issue in the drug addiction of ethnic minorities.

5th Interviewee:

I would like to add some other information and data in this statement. I think ethnic minority communities do not get employment opportunities as they are consuming drugs. I believe that it is required for authorities are to focus on maintaining and managing the life of Ireland ethnic minorities’ people. I was analyses that travelers’ communities mainly face issues while traveling from one place to another so that they face a high rate of mortality. 


Addiction policies for ethnic minorities in Ireland.2020.[Online].Available through:<>.

Barry, T., Crowley, D., Benton, A., Barron, E., and O’Reilly, F., 2017. Experience of a drug overdose at an urban addiction clinic in Ireland. Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems19(4).

Best, D., Albertson, K., Irving, J., Lightowlers, C., Mama-Rudd, A. and Chaggar, A., 2015. The UK Life in Recovery Survey 2015: the first national UK survey of addiction recovery experiences.

Butler, S., 2002. Addiction problems, addiction services, and social work in the Republic of Ireland. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions2(3-4), pp.31-48.

Chatwin, C., Measham, F., O’Brien, K., and Sumnall, H., 2017.New drugs, new directions?Research priorities for new psychoactive substances and human enhancement drugs. International journal of drug policy.40, pp.1-5.

Darker, C.D., Ho, J., Kelly, G., Whiston, L. and Barry, J., 2016. Demographic and clinical factors predicting retention in methadone maintenance: results from an Irish cohort. Irish Journal of Medical Science (1971-)185(2), pp.433-441.

Davoren, M.P., Lane, D., Kirby, J., Gibney, K., Kinsley, G., Hope, A., Byrne, M., and Perry, I.J., 2019. Support for evidence-based alcohol policy in Ireland: results from the Community Action on Alcohol Pilot Project. Journal of public health policy40(1), pp.76-90.

Delargy, I., Crowley, D., and Van Hout, M.C., 2019. Twenty years of the methadone treatment protocol in Ireland: reflections on the role of general practice. Harm reduction journal16(1), p.5.

Dingle, G.A., Cruwys, T., and Frings, D., 2015.Social identities as pathways into and out of addiction. Frontiers in Psychology6, p.1795.

Drug and alcohol abuse in Ireland.2020.[Online].Available through:<>.

Edmundson, C., Heinsbroek, E., Glass, R., Hope, V., Mohammed, H., White, M., and Desai, M., 2018. Sexualized drug use in the United Kingdom (UK): a review of the literature. International Journal of Drug Policy55, pp.131-148.

Ethnic communities in Ireland.2020.[Online].Available through:<>.

Ford, R. and Kootstra, A., 2017. Do white voters support welfare policies targeted at ethnic minorities? Experimental evidence from Britain. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies43(1), pp.80-101.

Here, Y.I., Evans, E., Grella, C., Ling, W., and Anglin, D., 2015.Long-term course of opioid addiction. Harvard review of psychiatry23(2), pp.76-89.

Jones, C.M., Christensen, A. and Gladden, R.M., 2017. Increases in prescription opioid injection abuse among treatment admissions in the United States, 2004–2013. Drug and alcohol dependence176, pp.89-95.

Joyce, N., MacNeela, P., Sarma, K., Ryall, G., and Keenan, E., 2018. The experience and meaning of problematic ‘G'(GHB/GBL) use in an Irish context: An interpretative phenomenological analysis. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction16(4), pp.1033-1054.

Keegan, D., Crowley, D., Laird, E., and Van Hout, M.C., 2017. Prevalence and risk factors for Hepatitis C viral infection amongst a cohort of Irish drug users attending a drug treatment centre for Agonist Opioid Treatment (AOT). Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems19(1).

Knight, M., Nair, M., Tuffnell, D., Kenyon, S., Shakespeare, J., Brocklehurst, P. and Kurinczuk, J.J., 2016. Saving Lives, Improving Mothers’ Care: Surveillance of maternal deaths in the UK 2012-14 and lessons learned to inform maternity care from the UK and Ireland Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths and Morbidity 2009-14.

Kulesza, M., Matsuda, M., Ramirez, J.J., Werntz, A.J., Teachman, B.A. and Lindgren, K.P., 2016. Towards greater understanding of addiction stigma: Intersectionality with race/ethnicity and gender. Drug and alcohol dependence169, pp.85-91.

Mayock, P., Sheridan, S. and PARkER, S.A.R.A.H., 2015. The Dynamics of long-term homelessness among women in Ireland. Dublin Region Homeless Executive.

Moran, L., Keenan, E. and Elmusharaf, K., 2018. Barriers to progressing through a methadone maintenance treatment programme: perspectives of the clients in the Mid-West of Ireland’s drug and alcohol services. BMC health services research18(1), pp.1-15.

Moss, K. and Singh, P., 2015. Women rough sleepers in Europe: Homelessness and victims of domestic abuse. Policy Press.

Neale, J., Tompkins, C., Wheeler, C., Finch, E., Marsden, J., Mitcheson, L., Rose, D., Wykes, T. and Strang, J., 2015. “You’re all going to hate the word ‘recovery’by the end of this”: Service users’ views of measuring addiction recovery. Drugs: education, prevention and policy22(1), pp.26-34.

O’Donnell, P., Tierney, E., O’Carroll, A., Nurse, D. and MacFarlane, A., 2016. Exploring levers and barriers to accessing primary care for marginalised groups and identifying their priorities for primary care provision: a participatory learning and action research study. International journal for equity in health15(1), p.197.

Patel, V., Chisholm, D., Parikh, R., Charlson, F.J., Degenhardt, L., Dua, T., Ferrari, A.J., Hyman, S., Laxminarayan, R., Levin, C. and Lund, C., 2016. Addressing the burden of mental, neurological, and substance use disorders: key messages from Disease Control Priorities. The Lancet387(10028), pp.1672-1685.

Service provisions for drug addicts in Ireland.2020.[Online].Available through:<>.

Sewell, J., Miltz, A., Lampe, F.C., Cambiano, V., Speakman, A., Phillips, A.N., Stuart, D., Gilson, R., Asboe, D., Nwokolo, N. and Clarke, A., 2017. Poly drug use, chemsex drug use, and associations with sexual risk behaviour in HIV-negative men who have sex with men attending sexual health clinics. International Journal of Drug Policy43, pp.33-43.

Shattuck, A., Finkelhor, D., Turner, H. and Hamby, S., 2016. Children exposed to abuse in youth-serving organizations: Results from national sample surveys. JAMA pediatrics170(2), pp.e154493-e154493.

Usage of drugs and alcohol.2020.[Online].Available through:<>.

Van Hout, M.C. and Hearne, E., 2017. The changing landscape of Irish Traveller alcohol and drug use. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy24(2), pp.220-222.

Van Hout, M.C., Horan, A., Santlal, K., Rich, E. and Bergin, M., 2018. ‘Codeine is my companion’: misuse and dependence on codeine containing medicines in Ireland. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine35(4), pp.275-288.

Van Hout, M.C., Norman, I., Rich, E. and Bergin, M., 2017. Experiences of Codeine Use, Misuse and Dependence: Application of Liese and Franz’s Cognitive Developmental Model of Substance Abuse. Behavioural and cognitive psychotherapy45(3), pp.238-252.

Wiessing, L., Ferri, M., Běláčková, V., Carrieri, P., Friedman, S.R., Folch, C., Dolan, K., Galvin, B., Vickerman, P., Lazarus, J.V. and Mravčík, V., 2017.Monitoring quality and coverage of harm reduction services for people who use drugs: a consensus study. Harm reduction journal14(1), p.19.

Fletcher, A.J., 2017. Applying critical realism in qualitative research: methodology meets method. International journal of social research methodology20(2), pp.181-194.

Taherdoost, H., 2016. Sampling methods in research methodology; how to choose a sampling technique for research. How to Choose a Sampling Technique for Research (April 10, 2016).

Dumay, J. and Cai, L., 2015. Using content analysis as a research methodology for investigating intellectual capital disclosure. Journal of Intellectual Capital.

Ørngreen, R. and Levinsen, K., 2017. Workshops as a Research Methodology. Electronic Journal of E-learning15(1), pp.70-81.

Ulmer, J.B., 2017. Posthumanism as research methodology: Inquiry in the Anthropocene. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education30(9), pp.832-848.

King, K.A. and Mackey, A., 2016. Research methodology in second language studies: Trends, concerns, and new directions. The Modern Language Journal100(S1), pp.209-227.

Kulesza, M., Matsuda, M., Ramirez, J.J., Werntz, A.J., Teachman, B.A. and Lindgren, K.P., 2016. Towards greater understanding of addiction stigma: Intersectionality with race/ethnicity and gender. Drug and alcohol dependence169, pp.85-91.

Amaro, H., Raj, A., Vega, R.R., Mangione, T.W. and Perez, L.N., 2016. Racial/ethnic disparities in the HIV and substance abuse epidemics: Communities responding to the need. Public Health Reports.

Zapolski, T.C., Fisher, S., Banks, D.E., Hensel, D.J. and Barnes-Najor, J., 2017. Examining the protective effect of ethnic identity on drug attitudes and use among a diverse youth population. Journal of youth and adolescence46(8), pp.1702-1715.

Soto, C., Baezconde-Garbanati, L., Schwartz, S.J. and Unger, J.B., 2015. Stressful life events, ethnic identity, historical trauma, and participation in cultural activities: Associations with smoking behaviors among American Indian adolescents in California. Addictive Behaviors50, pp.64-69.

Nowotny, K.M., 2015. Race/ethnic disparities in the utilization of treatment for drug dependent inmates in US state correctional facilities. Addictive Behaviors40, pp.148-153.

Blume, A.W., 2016. Advances in substance abuse prevention and treatment interventions among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews38(1), p.47.

Maddahian, E., Newcomb, M.D. and Bentler, P.M., 2016. Adolescents’ substance use: Impact of ethnicity, income, and availability. Advances in alcohol & substance abuse5(3), pp.63-78.

Stevens-Watkins, D., Perry, B., Harp, K.L. and Oser, C.B., 2012. Racism and illicit drug use among African American women: The protective effects of ethnic identity, affirmation, and behavior. Journal of Black Psychology38(4), pp.471-496.

Guerrero, E.G., Fenwick, K., Kong, Y., Grella, C. and D’Aunno, T., 2015. Paths to improving engagement among racial and ethnic minorities in addiction health services. Substance abuse treatment, prevention, and policy10(1), p.40.

Westermeyer, J., 2019. Sex ratio among opium addicts in Asia: Influences of drug availability and sampling method. Drug and alcohol dependence6(3), pp.131-136.

Beebe, L.A., Vesely, S.K., Oman, R.F., Tolma, E., Aspy, C.B. and Rodine, S., 2018. Protective assets for non-use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs among urban American Indian youth in Oklahoma. Maternal and child health journal12(1), pp.82-90.

Trimble, J.E., Padilla, A.M. and Bell, C.S., 2017. Drug abuse among ethnic minorities. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration, National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Copemann, C.D. and Shaw, P.L., 2015. Selected demographic characteristics and patterns of drug abuse among treated addicts from a suburban community. British Journal of Addiction to Alcohol & Other Drugs70(2), pp.205-212.

Steiner, B.D. and Argothy, V., 2019. White Addiction: Racial Ineqaulity, Racial Ideology, and the War on Drugs. Temp. Pol. & Civ. Rts. L. Rev.10, p.443.

Jainchill, N., De Leon, G. and Yagelka, J., 2017. Ethnic differences in psychiatric disorders among adolescent substance abusers in treatment. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment19(2), pp.133-148.

Braucht, G.N., Brakarsh, D., Follingstad, D. and Berry, K.L., 2019. Deviant drug use in adolescence: a review of psychosocial correlates. Psychological bulletin79(2), p.92.

Weisner, C. and Schmidt, L., 2019. Alcohol and drug problems among diverse health and social service populations. American Journal of Public Health83(6), pp.824-829.

Mora, J., 2020. Latinas in cultural transition: addiction, treatment and recovery. The handbook of addiction treatment for women: Theory and practice, pp.323-347.

McLaughlin, D.G., Raymond, J.S., Murakami, S.R. and Goebert, D., 2017. Drug use among Asian Americans in Hawaii. Journal of psychoactive drugs19(1), pp.85-94.

Castro, F.G. and Alarcon, E.H., 2020. Integrating cultural variables into drug abuse prevention and treatment with racial/ethnic minorities. Journal of Drug Issues32(3), pp.783-810.

Amaro, H., Larson, M.J., Gampel, J., Richardson, E., Savage, A. and Wagler, D., 2015. Racial/ethnic differences in social vulnerability among women with co‐occurring mental health and substance abuse disorders: Implications for treatment services. Journal of Community Psychology33(4), pp.495-511.

Anglin, M.D., Booth, M.W., Ryan, T.M. and Hser, Y.L., 2018. Ethnic differences in narcotics addiction. II. Chicano and Anglo addiction career patterns. International Journal of the Addictions23(10), pp.1011-1027.

Lê Cook, B. and Alegría, M., 2019. Racial-ethnic disparities in substance abuse treatment: the role of criminal history and socioeconomic status. Psychiatric Services62(11), pp.1273-1281.

Gossop, M., Marsden, J., Stewart, D. and Treacy, S., 2020. Routes of drug administration and multiple drug misuse: regional variations among clients seeking treatment at programmes throughout England. Addiction95(8), pp.1197-1206.

Anglin, M.D., Ryan, T.M., Booth, M.W. and Hser, Y.L., 2018. Ethnic differences in narcotics addiction. I. Characteristics of Chicano and Anglo methadone maintenance clients. International Journal of the Addictions23(2), pp.125-149.

Prendergast, M.L., Hser, Y.I. and Gil-Rivas, V., 2018. Ethnic differences in longitudinal patterns and consequences of narcotics addiction. Journal of Drug Issues28(2), pp.495-515.

Witkiewitz, K., Greenfield, B.L. and Bowen, S., 2019. Mindfulness-based relapse prevention with racial and ethnic minority women. Addictive Behaviors38(12), pp.2821-2824.

Floyd, L.J., Alexandre, P.K., Hedden, S.L., Lawson, A.L., Latimer, W.W. and Giles III, N., 2017. Adolescent drug dealing and race/ethnicity: a population-based study of the differential impact of substance use on involvement in drug trade. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse36(2), pp.87-91.

De, P., Cox, J., Boivin, J.F., Platt, R.W. and Jolly, A.M., 2017. The importance of social networks in their association to drug equipment sharing among injection drug users: a review. Addiction102(11), pp.1730-1739.

Carter, C.S., 2020. Perinatal care for women who are addicted: Implications for empowerment. Health & Social Work27(3), pp.166-174.

Oetting, E.R., Donnermeyer, J.F. and Deffenbacher, J.L., 2018. Primary socialization theory. The influence of the community on drug use and deviance. Ill. Substance use & misuse33(8), pp.1629-1665.

Newcomb, M.D., Maddahian, E. and Bentler, P.M., 2016. Risk factors for drug use among adolescents: concurrent and longitudinal analyses. American journal of public health76(5), pp.525-531.

Lea, R. and Chambers, G., 2017. Monoamine oxidase, addiction, and the” warrior” gene hypothesis. The New Zealand Medical Journal (Online)120(1250).

Wood, E., Li, K., Palepu, A., Marsh, D.C., Schechter, M.T., Hogg, R.S., G. Montaner, J.S. and Kerr, T., 2015. Sociodemographic disparities in access to addiction treatment among a cohort of Vancouver injection drug users. Substance use & misuse40(8), pp.1153-1167.

Ho, K.H., Chiang, V.C. and Leung, D., 2017. Hermeneutic phenomenological analysis: the ‘possibility’beyond ‘actuality’in thematic analysis. Journal of advanced nursing73(7), pp.1757-1766.

Cassol, H., Pétré, B., Degrange, S., Martial, C., Charland-Verville, V., Lallier, F., Bragard, I., Guillaume, M. and Laureys, S., 2018. Qualitative thematic analysis of the phenomenology of near-death experiences. PloS one13(2), p.e0193001.

Benner, P., 2015. Quality of life: a phenomenological perspective on explanation, prediction, and understanding in nursing science. Advances in nursing science.

Braun, V. and Clarke, V., 2012. Thematic analysis.

Garg, M., Garrison, L., Leeman, L., Hamidovic, A., Borrego, M., Rayburn, W.F. and Bakhireva, L., 2016. Validity of self-reported drug use information among pregnant women. Maternal and child health journal20(1), pp.41-47.

Clark, C.D., 2017. The recovery revolution: The battle over addiction treatment in the United States. Columbia University Press.

Moody, R.L., Starks, T.J., Grov, C. and Parsons, J.T., 2018. Internalized homophobia and drug use in a national cohort of gay and bisexual men: Examining depression, sexual anxiety, and gay community attachment as mediating factors. Archives of sexual behavior47(4), pp.1133-1144.

Duan, S., Jin, Z., Liu, X., Yang, Y., Ye, R., Tang, R., Gao, M., Ding, Y. and He, N., 2017. Tobacco and alcohol use among drug users receiving methadone maintenance treatment: a cross-sectional study in a rural prefecture of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. BMJ open7(3).

Van Hout, M.C. and Hearne, E., 2017. The changing landscape of Irish Traveller alcohol and drug use. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy24(2), pp.220-222.

Claffey, C., Crowley, D., MacLachlan, M. and Van Hout, M.C., 2017. Exploring Irish Travellers’ experiences of opioid substitute treatment: a phenomenological study. Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems19(6).

Millar, S., 2018. New estimates of problem opiate use in Ireland. Drugnet Ireland.

Kulesza, M., Matsuda, M., Ramirez, J.J., Werntz, A.J., Teachman, B.A. and Lindgren, K.P., 2016. Towards greater understanding of addiction stigma: Intersectionality with race/ethnicity and gender. Drug and alcohol dependence169, pp.85-91.

Dolphin, L., Dooley, B. and Fitzgerald, A., 2015. Prevalence and correlates of psychotic like experiences in a nationally representative community sample of adolescents in Ireland. Schizophrenia research169(1-3), pp.241-247.

Van Hout, M.C., Horan, A., Santlal, K., Rich, E. and Bergin, M., 2018. ‘Codeine is my companion’: misuse and dependence on codeine containing medicines in Ireland. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine35(4), pp.275-288.

Guiney, C., 2018. Drug squads: units specialised in drug law enforcement in Europe. Drugnet Ireland, pp.26-27.

Dillon, L., 2018. Human rights and equality of drug treatment service users. Drugnet Ireland, pp.12-13.

Shah, S., DeMatteo, D., Keesler, M., Davis, J., Heilbrun, K. and Festinger, D.S., 2015. Addiction Severity Index scores and urine drug screens at baseline as predictors of graduation from drug court. Crime & Delinquency61(9), pp.1257-1277.

Leavey, G., Loewenthal, K. and King, M., 2016. Locating the social origins of mental illness: The explanatory models of mental illness among clergy from different ethnic and faith backgrounds. Journal of religion and health55(5), pp.1607-1622.

Reddon, H., Pettes, T., Wood, E., Nosova, E., Milloy, M.J., Kerr, T. and Hayashi, K., 2018. Incidence and predictors of mental health disorder diagnoses among people who inject drugs in a Canadian setting. Drug and alcohol review37, pp.S285-S293.

Martins, S.S., Sampson, L., Cerdá, M. and Galea, S., 2015. Worldwide prevalence and trends in unintentional drug overdose: a systematic review of the literature. American journal of public health105(11), pp.e29-e49.

Leonard, L. and Kenny, P., RESTORATIVE JUSTICE IN A DIVERSE SOCIETY: THEORY AND PRACTICE IN THE IRISH CASE. CRIMSOC Report 4: Gender, Victimology & Restorative Justice Edited by Walter De Keseredy & Liam Leonard, p.230.

Ireland, M.E., Schwartz, H.A., Chen, Q., Ungar, L.H. and Albarracín, D., 2015. Future-oriented tweets predict lower county-level HIV prevalence in the United States. Health Psychology34(S), p.1252.

Stahler, G.J. and Mennis, J., 2018. Treatment outcome disparities for opioid users: Are there racial and ethnic differences in treatment completion across large US metropolitan areas?. Drug and alcohol dependence190, pp.170-178.

Vulser, H., Lemaitre, H., Artiges, E., Miranda, R., Penttilä, J., Struve, M., Fadai, T., Kappel, V., Grimmer, Y., Goodman, R. and Stringaris, A., 2015. Subthreshold depression and regional brain volumes in young community adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry54(10), pp.832-840.