What is qualitative research? How it is different from quantitative research?
Qualitative research is the method that is used to collect and gather descriptive data which helps in properly making a report. This is considered as multi-methods in concentration which involves analyzing the data that are collected from various sources. It is a method that is used to examine the non-numerical data to evaluate opinions, concepts, and experiences. In addition to this, it is mainly used to collect depth data which helps in completing the report and develop new ideas related to the study (Rutberg, et. al., 2018). This is generally utilized in social sconce and public health concerning sociology, health science, education, history, etc. qualitative research is mainly used for a better understanding of how individual experiences in the world. There are the different flexible approach that assists in interpreting data and information.
The qualitative research is different from quantitative research in every manner. In this, qualitative concerned with evaluating human behavior and their attitude, on the other hand, quantitative focus on exploring the facts regarding social phenomena. In consideration of qualitative data, it is collected with the use of participants’ interviews and observations and quantitative gathered through measures things. In the context of methods, the quantitative method deals with numerical and statistical methods and they are allowed to tests the hypothesis by collecting and examining the required data (Woodgate, et. al., 2016). The qualitative method mainly deals with meanings and words and it enables researchers to explore new ideas to gain more experience in collecting necessary data. The qualitative analysis helps in increasing understanding of information that is collected from different sources such as books, journals, magazines and so more. This method mainly measures the quality of content rather than quantity (Mishra, 2016). Quantitative analysis is conducted for taking opinions and responses of selected participants regarding the research theme in a better manner. It involves a data analysis method like a questionnaire that is used to set a series of questions and ask from respondents. It is that analysis that is measured by quantity only and it is conducted for analyzing facts, figures, graphs, numbers, percentages, and tables effectively. Sampling is an important section of the research in which researchers are chosen the small size of individuals who are given their ideas and views on the specific topic (Yates, et. al., 2016). The qualitative method does not require conducting sampling but quantitative needs to select sample size when they develop questionnaires and interviews. This is required for the researcher is to focus on collect and assemble necessary data that are important for developing reports and sampling helps to select volunteer participants who are interested to work in this research process.
Describe four qualitative methodologies that you learned about this trimester.
The four qualitative methodologies that o have learned in the trimester involve phenomenology, ethnography, grounded theory, and case study. In this, phenomenology is that qualitative research method which is mainly applied in social and helps in sciences like nursing. This is considered as reasonable direction to study practices as everything a person can observe they are practically in real life. There are two forms of phenomenology such as Hermeneutic and Transcendental. Apart from this, this methodology is best suitable for answering the research questions in a better manner. There are certain limitations of this method such as consume time to collect relevant data, complexity in recruiting potential participants, bias, and small sampling, and difficulty in analysis and interpretation of data (Mays, et. al., 2020). Grounded theory is the qualitative methodology that helps in investigating the people’s experiences and their reactions, to create a theory for the process. It is mainly used to gather data that are accurate for the study. This method is appropriate to use while there is no current theories are present related to the procedure in which researchers are interested. In this, researchers recruit participants who lived off the case under this study and it is also known as theoretical sampling procedure. The interview is the main source for collecting data in this approach which helps in gathering different respondents’ opinions.
Ethnography is an effective qualitative research methodology that is used to study some cultures within a group of individuals. The study of Ethnography is mainly connected to culture like values, beliefs, language, and behavior. This method is originated from sociology and anthropology. Ethnography associated research questions mainly sound as what is the culture of ……….? Along with this, Ethnography data collection comes in the form of wide observation, in-depth interviews, field notes, and other information (Kopf, et. al., 2016). A case study defines as an event, process, activity, practice, and different people’s actions. This method required to be studied by using a restricted system, the limitations of such case usually space or time. The case study is mainly characterized by multiple data sources that include observations, interviews, artifacts, and documents. It is used in different forms of data to in-depth evaluation and understanding of specific cases.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of qualitative research? Why it is useful in public health?
Qualitative research is a method that helps in collecting and gathering descriptive data for completing the project. There are various advantages and disadvantages of qualitative research are discussed (Holtkamp, et. al., 2019). The main advantage of this method is that it saves money and cost as qualitative research uses a small sample size than other methods of research. A small sample size consumes low cost and saves the value of the researcher. This will help in generating content that is useful for developing the research report. it assists in analyze new ways to present the old content that can be complex but qualitative research enables for real ideas to be gathered. This method can confine the changing attitude and behavior of target groups like consumers of the goods and services, or attitude of employees in an organization. Qualitative research provides a flexible approach that is useful for gaining respondents’ views and opinions regarding the research topic.
The disadvantage of qualitative research is that this is not statistically present the data collected but it is not provides investigating information from different individual perspectives. The gathered data with the use of qualitative research is dependent on the researcher’s experience that is participated in this procedure (Hammarberg, et. al., 2016). This research data can be time-consuming as the researcher needs to sort information before conducting this investigation. Qualitative research mainly concentrates on smaller sample size for formulating an effective data profile, but the complexity of questions became a disadvantage. It is also a challenge for the researcher is to replicate results while using this technique. There are some accuracy and reliability to the qualitative research and there is certain subjectivity as well. Due to this nature, data gathered may not be accepted in a specific report.
Qualitative research is useful in public health as it allows the researcher to explore the behavioral and social issues that are associated with public health. This method of research is useful when the study concentrates on difficult issues that include human behavior and felt needs (Fletcher, 2017). The main goal of this research is to assist in understanding and evaluating the social phenomena with the assistance of experiences and views of all the respondents. Qualitative research is important in public health in three ways. Firstly it is used to study the cultural, economic, social, and political aspects that may impact human health and create diseases. Secondly, analyze the interactions among different stakeholders in the context of the issue of public health significance. The last one is examining how an individual and their communities understand the disease and health effects.
What are the cultural and ethical considerations we must consider in qualitative research?
Ethical and cultural consideration is an important part of the research in which selected participants does not allow to share any confidential data and information with anyone else. It is important for the researcher is to focus on maintaining integrity and honesty among chosen respondents so they do not perform such unethical practices. Besides this, some cultural and ethical considerations must be considered in the qualitative research. It involves confidentiality, consent form, anonymity and so more. In this research, voluntary participation is important and they have the right to withdraw from the study at any stage whenever they want. Researchers should consider the consent form in which they are filling the participants’ information and assurance about they are taking part in this research (Alase, 2017). In this, respondents can freely give their decision whether they want to do such or not, no one is pressurizing them for any action. This is required for all the participated members is to not share related data and information with outsiders otherwise they will be punishable and can give the penalty. Along with this, the researcher must attempt the chances of interruption in the autonomy of study respondents. While extremely sensitive problems arise related to children or other vulnerable individuals should have contact with a supporter who is present at the time of the primary stage. These are certain considerations of ethics that must be considered in the qualitative method of research.
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