The word tourism is being termed as a pleasure and practice in terms of touring and also providing services that includes transport, places and stay for a people who are on a holiday(Bowenand Whalen, 2017). In this report UNWTO organisation is being taken into consideration. It is an agency in the United Nations that is basically responsible in terms of promotion of responsible, sustainable and also universally accessible tourism.
In the following report, key milestones in development of travel and tourism sector has been discussed along with the elements that interrelate with various tourist’s experience. Further, various factors will also be determined that would affect tourismand also the popularity of a range of global destinations. In addition to this, this report will also highlight on the motivational models that would lead the customer in decision making process and in meeting the emerging trends.
P1. Key milestones in development of travel and tourism industry.
The government of the particular country has been introduced new policies and procedures in order to achieve high attraction from tourist that would lead towards the economic growth at higher level(Camilleri, 2018). Thus, key milestones that helps in development of travel and tourism sector has been discussed as per below context-
The great sanctuaries that include Olympia where the ancient sports agonies were held therefore became the most important tourist centres in the ancient Greece. The three things that motivated people to travel to the Olympia and other sanctuaries was the religious motive as it was the most important centres in terms of pilgrimage. Second thing was that they were the main centres for the sports tourism. And the last one is that this was became the main centres of the cultural tourism. In addition to this, the summer Olympic Games increases the number of the international tourist arrivals significantly in the host countries.
- Holiday camps- This is the huge development that is being made in the travel and tourism industry. Thus, the demand of this is being increasing day by day as the main attraction in this is that there is a huge demand for the package in terms of camp where people can enjoy their holidays.
- Transport development- The transport in travel and tourism sector is being developing constantly in order to meets the needs and demand of the customers. It is being changed in such way that the customers can easily afford the transport facilities and have comfortable travel. It also helps in providing jobs and also allow delivery of materials that is being needed in building and developing of a particular city and also helps in carrying the tourist from one destination to another with ease.
- Technological development- This is also the main reason that helps the country in achieving high level of economy by making tourist attract towards the destination. Thus, it has been analysed that invention of internet has helped the technology in changing the lifestyle of everyone in such way that they prefer booking the destination place and transportation online. In addition to this, this technology updation has helped the customers or travellers in making their experience easier and affordable as they can compare their price with other destination and can select the best and affordable one for the to visit.
- Disability Discrimination Act- The main aim of this act is to end up the discrimination that leads in facing number of people with the disabilities. This act helps in promoting the equality among everyone that has some kind of disabilities. This also helps the government in setting up the limited standards so that everyone can use the public transport easily and without any hesitation. This has also helped the tourist in visiting all destinations as there is equality among everyone. Therefore, everyone can live their life will full enjoyment and ease.
- Development of tourism Act- The main aim or focus of this Act was to bring coordination among all the organisations that makes up the tourism sector and try to provide it with single voice(Del Vecchio, Mele, Ndouand Secundo, 2018). This also leads in promoting tourism al over the world to attract huge volume of tourist among a country. Moreover, it also helps in providing with financial assistance out of the funds that is being generated by the public for establishing new hotels and accommodation that can be further provided to the tourist visit and can stay over there. This would further help in achieving huge profitability and also leads in the economic growth.
Thus, it has been also analysed that the biggest and most successful trend in travel and tourism sector is the change from the travel agencies that are offline to the online. Therefore, when the travellers or the customers reach online to purchase the travel products and services they also get true and clear information about all the destinations and with the help of this, they can select the best one by comparing the thing they wanted to do. This is the best development that this particular sector has been made and has also made the life easier of the travellers and customers.
P2. Different elements of travel and tourism industry and their interrelation in creating tourist experience.
The elements of travel and tourism industry is being termed as the components of tourism that must be therefore taken into consideration in order to make it as a branding strategy(Dunetsand Zhogova, 2018). Thus, those components have been discussed as per below context-
- Attraction- Attraction plays significant role in making tourist visit over there. Thus, as per the estimation it is being predicted that about 68% tourist visit the place by taking attraction and essence of that place into consideration. Basically, people choose attraction as the priority because some people mainly visit to write the novels or stories so that they can achieve good and innovative ideas to write and to relax from the burden of their life.
- Activities- Activities that includes hiking, biking, trekking are the ones that attract or impress the one who are travelling for such destinations. It has been also estimated that maximum of the people makes their priority for the outdoor activities. Therefore, UNWTO can share all the information relation to the destinations easily by updating the website on regular basis by uploading various videos, images and activities related to a particular destination.
- Accessibility- This also plays extremely important role in terms of travelling. This is because it leads a person towards reaching the attraction place(Ebejer, Smith, Stevenson and Maitland, 2020). Other than this, transportation also plays high role in making place accessible to the travellers. Therefore, if the people visit the place, they must have complete knowledge about transportation mediums, rules, and regulations of the particular place.
- Accommodation- Thus, when tourists tries to visit to a particular place, they mainly wish to have a good place where they can stay with all type of amenities and luxuries. Further, place with high comfort level tries to attract huge volume of travellers towards the destination. Therefor the cited agency UNWTO must try to update the website on regular basis so that the person can easily find out the best accommodation for themselves where they can stay and enjoy their holidays. As todays generation is completely based on technology and social sites so they prefer online booking by comparing the prices and facilities themselves.
- Amenities- Thus, if the cited sector wants or desires to win the heart of the tourists than they will have to provide them with the needed amenities. These amenities would be termed as a greater spot in order to bring greater promotions to the business agencies.
- Affordability- Tourists must be able in affording the trip by taking each and every cost including transportation, accommodation, attractions entrance fees and the days that they have planned to spend in this place. Therefore, the package must be prepared by the cited agency by keeping the affordability of the customer into mind. This would be therefore attracting huge volume of tourists towards a particular destination and may further help particular tourism firm in achieving long term success.
P3. Factors affecting tourism behaviour.
Travel behaviour basically refers to that way in which the tourists behave as per the attitudes they have before the travelling and after the travelling that is being taken place. In addition to this, knowledge regarding the behaviour of the travel can further leads in assisting in planning in terms of marketing and product and also related to the development(Hafiz Hanafiah,Hemdi and Ahmad,2016). This further helps in increasing the visitor’s volume to the products and services that is being offered by tourism sector. Hence, the factors that affects the tourism behaviour has been discussed as per below context-
- Geographical factors- There are some physical factors like geographical and climatic conditions, facilities and amenities that are available at the destination, advertising and marketing that is being conducted by the tourism business that leads in altering the decision making of the tourists(Liu, Mehraliyev, Liuand Schuckert, 2020).
- Social factors- Social factors may include person’s social network that leads in providing first had information that further leads in altering the decision of a person in order to visit a particular place.
- Place of origin- It is being analysed that there can be a broad spectrum in the behaviour of a tourist that depends upon a place that they belong to.
- Tourism Destination- This is termed as a major and most important contributing factor that has all type of basic provisions which includes electricity, water, clean surroundings, proper accessibility, amenities that has its own significance which basically attracts the tourist in larger volume.
- Education of the tourists- It is being analysed that the highly educated the tourist is their choice is of wide range and also their curiosity and knowledge they have in terms of places. This further leads in driving the decision making process when they have to choose a destination they wanted to visit and spend their holidays.
P4. Models of motivation and the way of influencing the customer decision making process.
Decision making is basically that process that leads in making high level choices with determining the decision, gathering information and also be assessing the alternative resolutions(Mahrous and Hassan, 2017). This further helps in meeting up the goals and objectives that is being targeted by the cited agency in order to achieve long term success. Thus, motivation theory is being discussed with the help of Maslow’s need hierarchy theory.
Maslow’s hierarchy theory is completely based on the basic needs of the human and thus, five levels is being identified that helps in motivating the individual in decision making process.
- Physiological needs- These are the basic needs of the human life which includes food, clothing, shelter, air, water, and necessities of life that relates towards the survival and human life maintenance. This is at the lower level of the pyramid which must be met first. Thus, once it is being satisfied, they do not motivate the person.
- Safety needs- After, physiological needs get satisfied, safety needs come into existence. While, to meet and fulfil these requirements, person require huge volume of money in order to achieve economic security and protection from the physical dangers the individual is being prompted in order to work more(Perić,Vitezić and Badurina, 2019). In addition to this, after fulfilling this need, they alsoget inactive and do not motivate the individual any longer.
- Social needs- Man is interested in social companionship, interactions, and belongings. Thus, only due to this, people prefer working in groups so that they can meet this requirements and desires that they want to fulfil.
- Esteem needs- This means to achieve self-respect and self-esteem. Thus, if the individual fulfils this requirement than it may lead them towards self-confidence, achievement, competence, knowledge, and independence that they are quite valued and useful for the success and can help in making decisions accordingly.
- Self-actualisation needs- this is that level, that represents higher needs of the person or an individual. This is at the top of the hierarchy pyramid which means fulfilment. In other words, it is that skills where the person is being motivated in order to transform the perception of self into a reality.
Thus, as per Maslow, the needs and desires of an individual follow definite sequence in terms of domination. Further, the second need do not arise until first gets satisfied and the third one do not emerge until first do is not being satisfied. It has also been analysed that the needs and wants of the humans are unlimited.
P5. Recent and emerging patterns and trends in international travel and tourism industry.
Tourism industry is trying to witness the new and emerging trends that are further supplementing the established trends in the sector(Serravalle and et.al., 2019). Further, travellers are being shifting towards the private properties. Thus, the recent and emerging trends in travel and tourism industry has been discussed as per below context-
- Domestic and regional travel- The tourists are therefore forced to stay within their own boundaries, therefore travellers start exploring their surrounding region and cities. Thus, as soon as its more or less safe in order to leave the house, people will therefore be wanting up in order o make up for the downtime and therefore look for the opportunities of domestic travel.
- Short weekend getaways- This is the most prominent trend that is therefore gaining huge popularity among a large section of the new age travellers. People are therefore looking out for new and innovative destinations with actually minimum expenses. Further, it has been become more easier in order to travel as a resources and connectivity have been therefore increased in substantial manner. It is also much better to give a background check of such destinations as they are quite new and the most emerging one.
- Solo trips- Solo travellers are the one that reinvent themselves and their goals in the life by heading out for the solo trips. This do not mean that the tourists visit new places, but its seen as a way of reconnecting with the soul and explore the goals of life. Solo travellers are basically those who meet new people and can go anywhere. The concept of this solo tourism is now getting experimented and trendy. This also helps in generating the growth of the economy of a particular country.
- Travel blogging- Some people love travelling and visiting new places bt due to lack of office holidays then they may choose travelling as a part of their profession. This means that they can be a travel blogger, travel writer or a photographer for which they have to visit new places to fulfil the task.
- Budget travel- This travel is that which leads in allowing people in such way that they can travel without getting burdened by the economic challenges. This do not at all means to stay at the shabby accommodations, but it means to plan a trip by keeping budget into consideration and balanced.
Thus, there are some trends that are basically driven by the customers and others are driven by the travel and tourism industry. Further, it is also being analysed that there is no one that can predict the future but makes an impact on the world to a larger extent.
P6. Factors affecting popularity of range of global destinations.
Tourism basically helps in playing vital role in achieving long term success and generate huge economies around the world(Seyfi, Hall and Rasoolimanesh, 2020). Thus, the factors that affect the popularity of global destination has been discussed as per below context-
- Environment at destination- Tourism plays the best role when the destination boasts of conductive climate. Thus, if there is any kind of undesired changes in the environment including high winds, flash floods, drought and extreme climate may therefore affect the tourism sector in adverse manner. For e.g. People try to travel to colder climate regions when there is hot climate in the region.
- Economy of the country- Thus, if a particular country is going under economic turbulence and if people staying there are facing unemployment issues then tourism will get affected to a high level. On the other hand, if the economy of a country is doing quite weel and there are no other issues like unemployment than will can afford spending money on leisure that further leads the tourism sector in progressing.
- Historical and cultural importance of the destination- If a particular destination is having some great historical stories than people would like to visit there to see monuments, castles and many other things. This would therefore lead in development of tourism sector to a large extent and may them to reach the huge success and achieve the boost.
- Research importance of destination- There are various tourist who basically visit places by only single objective or goal that is studies and exploration. Thus, it is being analysed that the need in terms of research may promote tourism to a large extent. There are number of professions that have a great significance in terms of research field.
- Religious importance of destination- There are number of places where there is huge religious importance and tourists are always flooded over there. The visitors visits this place normally for a pilgrimage purpose where they believe that their sin is being cleared over there before death.
- Technology- Internet has spread their place over almost every corner of the world and tourists are therefore taking complete benefits of this. Thus, while planning a tour, tourists are those that try to get the idea about various places that they are about to go. This would help them in making their tour of truly and full of experience.
From the above report, it is being concluded that tourism plays huge role in the growth of the economy in a particular country but has many factors that affect tourism process that too either positively or negatively. Further, it has also been analysed that there are various milestones including environment of the particular destination its importance and many more that leads into development of tourism sector to a large extent. In addition to this, this report also highlights on various factors that affect the behaviour of the tourists in terms pf their visit towards that place and motivation theory in terms of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is being discussed that helps in enhancing the decision making process of the customers in order to visit the places or destinations.
Books and Journal
Bowen, J. and Whalen, E., 2017. Trends that are changing travel and tourism. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes.
Camilleri, M.A., 2018. Tourism distribution channels. In Travel marketing, tourism economics and the airline product (pp. 105-115). Springer, Cham.
Del Vecchio, P., Mele, G., Ndou, V. and Secundo, G., 2018. Open innovation and social big data for sustainability: evidence from the tourism industry. Sustainability. 10(9). p.3215.
Dunets, A.N. and Zhogova, I.G., 2018. Significant changes of tourism industry in the altai-sayan mountainous region. Journal of Environmental Management & Tourism. 9(4 (28)). pp.868-878.
Ebejer, J., Smith, A., Stevenson, N. and Maitland, R., 2020. The tourist experience of heritage urban spaces: Valletta as a case study. Tourism Planning & Development. 17(4). pp.458-474.
Hafiz Hanafiah, M., Hemdi, M.A. and Ahmad, I., 2016. Does tourism destination competitiveness lead to performance? A case of ASEAN region. Turizam: međunarodniznanstveno-stručničasopis. 64(3). pp.251-260.
Liu, X., Mehraliyev, F., Liu, C. and Schuckert, M., 2020. The roles of social media in tourists’ choices of travel components. Tourist Studies. 20(1). pp.27-48.
Mahrous, A.A. and Hassan, S.S., 2017. Achieving superior customer experience: An investigation of multichannel choices in the travel and tourism industry of an emerging market. Journal of Travel Research. 56(8). pp.1049-1064.
Perić, M., Vitezić, V. and Badurina, J.Đ., 2019. Business models for active outdoor sport event tourism experiences. Tourism Management Perspectives. 32. p.100561.
Serravalle and et.al., 2019. Augmented reality in the tourism industry: A multi-stakeholder analysis of museums. Tourism Management Perspectives. 32. p.100549.
Seyfi, S., Hall, C.M. and Rasoolimanesh, S.M., 2020. Exploring memorable cultural tourism experiences. Journal of Heritage Tourism. 15(3). pp.341-357.
Tourism Management – Factors Affecting. 2020. [Online] Available through: < https://www.tutorialspoint.com/tourism_management/tourism_management_factors_affecting.htm>