Organisational behaviour is being termed as study of the behaviour people in a particular group. It further leads in giving insight of the behaviour of the employees in a particular organisation and the group dynamics that helps in achieving business productivity (Alshmemri, Shahwan-Akl and Maude, 2017). Thus, in this report Marks & Spencer is being taken into consideration. It is one of the leading British multinational retailers that is being headquartered in London, England, United Kingdom. and is specialised in selling cloths, home products and also food products.
In this report, the organisational culture, politics and power influences the team behaviour and performance is being discussed in detail. Further, various motivation theories will be illustrated that would help in motivating the workers in achieving huge profitability will be discussed. In addition to this, this assignment also helps in highlighting the philosophies of the organisational behaviour with the help of path goal theory and also the difference between effective and ineffective team is being analysed further in this study.
P1. Analysing the organisation culture, politics and power influence individual team and behaviour and performance.
Organisational culture, politics and the power are the internal factors that help in influencing the behaviour and the performance of the team if they are positive and where as negative culture, politics and power may demotivates the team (Chiat and Panatik, 2019). Thus, the internal factors are discussed below:
Organisational Culture: The term organisational culture refers to the values and believes prevailing in the Marks and Spencer Organisation. Further, there are four types of organisational culture which influences the performance and the productivity of the team in the cited organisation.
- Power culture: The power culture in the M&S organisation refers to having the power of authority in the hands of very few people. Thus, those authorised people are liable to take any decisions in the cited organisation. Therefore, those people enjoy special place and position in the above-mentioned organisation. Further, they assign the task to their subordinated and subordinates have to complete those allotted tasks at any cost. Subordinates do not have any option of not doing the work allotted to them. Hence, such type of culture in the cited organisation does not give any right or freedom to the subordinates to express and share their views with the superior ones. Hence, such type of culture may demotivate the employees of the above-mentioned organisation as that their thoughts, feeling and presence is not valuable for the organisation.
- Task culture: Task culture in the M&S refers to developing of the team to achieve the common goal of the organisation. In task culture the cited organisation makes the team of 4 to five members to achieve the short term and long-term objectives of the organisation (Chumg, Seaton, Cooke and Ding, 2016). further, in this type of culture the team members come together with various ideas, skills and talents in order to complete the assigned task successfully. Thus, such type of culture is motivating for the employees of the above-mentioned organisation and hence due to this their performance level and productivity will be increased.
- Person culture: Person culture is the culture where the employees of the M&S experience that they are more essential than their organisation. Such type of culture in the cited organisation may be demotivating for the employees as they come over there just for money sake and do not get emotionally involved to the organisation. As the employees thinks about themselves in such culture so they never decide in favour of the organisation as whole. Hence, in such culture employees would not be helping each other and thus gets demotivated to work anymore and due to this performance and productivity is affected.
- Role Culture: Role culture is the culture of the cited organisation where the employees are assigned with the work based on their qualification, interest, skills and the talent. Hence, they must work hard to complete those assigned work. Further, the employees who are assigned with the work are only the responsible and accountable for completion of the work. As responsibility come with the power, thus those employees working on the particular task will be motivated to complete the assigned work in effective way. Hence, such type of culture in the cited organisation will help in influencing the performance and the behaviour of the team.
Organisational politics is the self-serving behaviour of the employees of the M&S organisation. Thus, it is the used by the employees of power of the social networks to increase the performance, productivity to meet the goals. Hence, having positive politics and non-partiality motivates the employees as an individual and as a team. Further, positive politics increases the involvement of the employees which makes them to work more delicately. Whereas negative or partial politics demotivates and ruins the interest of the employees of the cited organisation. Thus, there increases employee turnover, absenteeism and decrease the productivity and performance.
Power is the authority or the rights that superiors have in order to make the work done form the subordinates. Thus, the if the superiors are using those power in the positive way it will make the employees of the cited organisation to feel good, motivated and thus their performance in a team and as an individual will increase (Donald and Carter, 2020). But if the superiors of the above-mentioned organisation are using those powers just to order his subordinates and not giving any respect to the work, feelings, thoughts, believes of the employees then it will demotivate them. Hence, demotivated
employees cannot work effectively and thus, their performance and productivity will be decreased. Hence, ultimately the productivity of the M&S will be decreased.
P2. Evaluating content and process theories of motivation and motivational techniques.
Content theories of motivation are the set of theories that helps the organisation to find the factors that motivates the employees (Griffin and et.al., 2020). Hence there are mainly two types of Motivation theory i.e. Content motivation and process motivation:
- Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: Maslow’s hierarchy of need theory was developed by Abraham Maslow in the year 1963. This theory is based on the personal experience of Maslow itself. He figured out the five basic needs of the employees which the cited organisation needs to fulfil in order to motivate the employees. Hence, these five needs of the employees were ordered in a hierarchy by Maslow. They are Psychological needs (i.e. water, food, shelter and sleep), safety and security (security of income, health and job), Belongingness and love, self-esteem and self-actualisation. As to achieve those unsatisfied need, employees will be motivated to work hard. Thus, the cited organisation can use this theory to motivate its employees.
- Alderfer- Erg theory: Alderfer Erg theory was developed by Clayton Alderfer. He also agreed with Maslow’s theory that the employees get motivated to work to achieve their basic needs. Further, he divided those needs in three categories as per their requirements. He was of the view that if the employee is not able to achieve the needs of high requirement, he will try to double the fulfilment the needs of low requirement. Hence, the cited organisation also needs to identify those needs and order them in three categories to motivate the employees to achieve them.
- McClelland theory: McClelland theory was developed by David McClelland in his book ‘The Achieving society’. Thus, the theory says that irrespective of any gender, age an employee has three main motivators that motivate him to work hard. These three motivators are- achievement, affiliation and power. Thus, the cited organisation need to find those three motivators of every employees that actually what they want to achieve, what they want to affiliate and which all powers they want to enjoy. Hence, understanding these motivators will help the cited organisation to motivate the employees.
- Herzberg theory: Herzberg theory was developed by Fredrick Herzberg and is also named as two factors theory. The theory says that there are two factors in the organisation that may satisfy the employees or may unsatisfied them. Thus, those two factors are hygiene and motivating factors. Hence, using this theory M&S can motivate its employees by giving them hygienic working environment. Hence, more the hygiene more the employees will be motivated and will like to work in the workplace. Hence, to motivate the employees and to increase the performance and productivity of the employees, the cited organisation needs to provide hygienic workplace to the employees.
- Skinner’s reinforcement theory: Skinner’s reinforcement theory is based on the assumption that the behaviour of the employees is dependent on the situation. The theory says that if the cited organisation is considering the hard work of the employees and rewarding them with goods salary and bonus then it will motivate them to work hard and productive for the future also (Karimi and Nickpayam, 2017). But if the cited organisation is not considering and neglecting the hard work of the employees then he will feel demotivated and hence forth he will not even try to put productive efforts for the organisation. Hence, to motivate the employees, M&S need to consider the hard work and accordingly decide the consequence.
- Vroom’s expectancy theory: Vroom’s expectancy theory assumes that some of the employee’s aim is to maximize profit by minimizing the pain. Thus, which means some of the employees wants to increase the profit and decrease the hard work. Hence, the cited organisation can use this theory to motivate the employees by making them believe that there is positive correlation between performance and handwork. Further, it also helps the organisation to make its employees believe that if they work hard they will be rewarded according.
- Adam’s equity theory: Adam’s equity theory believes in the equity between the employees input i.e. their hard work, skill, talents etc with their output i.e salary, promotion, rewards etc. Thus, the employees will be demotivated if they feel that the input that they gave in the cited organisation is much more than the output they receive from the cited organisation. Hence, to motivate the employees, the cited organisation needs to balance the output of the employees with the input.
- Locke’s goal setting theory: Locke’s goal setting theory is also based on the assumption that employees get motivated based on the consequences that they face. Hence, id the cited organisation wants to motivate its employees, they need to provide them with the right to life, liberty to talk and share their feelings. Such rights given by the Organization satisfies the employees to work hard and if the above-mentioned organisation fails to provide these rights will lose their competent and talented employees.
P3. Effective team as opposed to an ineffective team.
Effective team is basically defined as the important foundations that leads the organisation towards success. They are also the one that helps in improving the quality of goods and services that is being produced by Marks and Spencer. In other words, ineffective team is conflict ridden, unfocused and has negative competition among them. Further, these conditions lead in demonstrating themselves in high level of turnover and absenteeism that would lead towards poor communications and frustration among the workers that are being involved in the firm (Kiweewa, Gilbride, Luke and Clingerman, 2018). Thus, importance and significance of the effective team and its development is being further discussed as per below context with the help of Tuckman’s stages of group development.
- Forming- This stage is that which basically involves orientation period and also getting acquainted. Further, in this stage the level of uncertainty is quite high and people and individuals that are involved are looking for the authority and leadership in positive manner. In this stage, it is important to introduce the skills and backgrounds of each member that is being involved with the Marks and Spencer (Shane and Heckhausen, 2019). In addition to this, team members are being provided with the opportunity that they can organise themselves as per the responsibility and modifications.
- Storming- This stage is the most critical and difficult for the employees to pass through as it is completely marked with the conflict and competition of each individual available there. Further, this is the stage where team members are allowed to share their innovative views and ideas related to the situation (Wood and et.al., 2016). The leaders that are available therefore help the team by having a plan so that they can easily manage the competition among the members by making the communication gap between them easier.
- Norming- At this stage, teams have figured out the feeling to work together and make things successful easily. In this stage, there is not competition among the person anymore and the goals are also being cleared that they have to achieve together. The members therefore start working in an efficient manner as they have learned the way in order to share their ideas and also accept the feedback in terms of working towards a common goal.
- Performing- At this stage, the trust among the team members has been increased and they put efforts together to achieve common goals (Matei and Abrudan, 2016). In addition to this, they may also face some kind of issues at some point, but the members or employees are trained so well that they may bring out some strategy and try to resolve the problems without affecting the relation between the workers and also the progress and may achieve a huge success.
- Adjourning- This is the final stage of team development and team gets moved to another project or task as this particular task gets completed. In this stage, the review is being taken by the members regarding the project and also the things are analysed that they can improve further in the future.
Thus, it is being analysed that if team of M&S has to be effective than they must have an ability in order to contribute collectively towards the outcomes of the task and meet the required goals in an adequate and efficient manner.
P4. Concepts of philosophies of organisational behaviour.
Organisational behaviour is basically field of that study that leads in investigating the impact on the behaviour which is due to individual, groups and structures within a particular organisation. This impact further works in order to improve the effectiveness of the organisation to a large extent. Other than this, the philosophy of the organisational behaviour is being described as a way in which they basically operates their business and also the way they organise so that they can easily meet the goals that is being targeted. Thus, this is being further discussed with the help of path goal theory which denotes that a particular leader must try to illuminate the path towards the goal and make the journey quite successful by adopting various styles in different situations. . It is being further illustrated as per below context-
- Directive leadership- If leaders of M&S adopts the directive leadership than they may let the subordinate have knowledge about what actually is being expected from them. Thus, they give guidance and direct the employees accordingly and also lead sin scheduling work as per the expectation of the workers which would help in motivating the employees and may also help in making M&S to reach the boost.
- Supportive leadership- A supportive leader is the one that has unique and friendly nature and behave with every employee in equal manner. Thus, this style is also being known as People oriented leadership where the needs and desires of the workers is valued and provide them task accordingly as per their requirement. This would further help them in achieving long term success and loyalty base of the employees would be increased regarding Marks and Spencer.
- Participative leadership- This type of leaders is those who tries to participate in everything with their workers and always try to consult with the subordinates. They also prefer to ask them with innovative and creative ideas and solutions if they are facing with any kind of problems. This nature of leaders also helps in motivating the workers as they feel valued for the enterprise and may further put huge amount of effort in performing their task and earn profitability for the success of the cited brand.
- Achievement Oriented Leadership- Tis leadership style is that in which goals are being set and also expects the subordinates in order to perform their task at high level. Further, their main aim is to encourage the workers and show them confidence in themselves and this will play a critical role in making them work as per the situation of the Marks and Spencer. This theory is as same as goal setting theory.
Thus, as per the path goal theory, it is being analysed that the leadership styes are not excusive and leaders are therefore highly capable in selecting the leadership style as per the changing situation in the organisation. In addition to this, it has also been analysed this styles may be highly effective in some situation but may also not be quite effective in some other situation.
From the above report, it is being analysed that organisational behaviour plays extremely essential role in achieving high level of success by maintaining the team performance and also their behaviour in an effective manner. Further, it has also been analysed that culture, politics and power of the Marks and Spencer may also affect the performance therefore it is being stated that the culture of the firm must be positive so that people gets motivated and work accordingly. In addition to this, it is also being analysed that motivation theories must be adopted by the firm so that they can motivate the workers in such way that it would lead them towards the huge success and company may therefore reach the boost. Moreover, Path goal theory is being discussed that helps in estimating that if the cited firm makes use of this leadership styles as per the situation than they may help workers to understand the ability and skills that they have and may work accordingly.
Books and Journal
Alshmemri, M., Shahwan-Akl, L. and Maude, P., 2017. Herzberg’s two-factor theory. Life Science Journal. 14(5). pp.12-16.
Chiat, L.C. and Panatik, S.A., 2019. Perceptions of employee turnover intention by Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory: A systematic literature review. Journal of Research in Psychology. 1(2). pp.10-15.
Chumg, H.F., Seaton, J., Cooke, L. and Ding, W.Y., 2016. Factors affecting employees’ knowledge-sharing behaviour in the virtual organisation from the perspectives of well-being and organisational behaviour. Computers in Human Behavior. 64. pp.432-448.
Donald, E.J. and Carter, A., 2020. Overview of Common Group Theories. Group Development and Group Leadership in Student Affairs, p.17.
Griffin, R.W., and et.al., 2020. Organisational Behaviour: Engaging People and Organisations. Cengage AU.
Karimi, K. and Nickpayam, J., 2017. Gamification from the viewpoint of motivational theory. Emerging Science Journal. 1(1). pp.34-42.
Kiweewa, J.M., Gilbride, D., Luke, M. and Clingerman, T., 2018. Tracking growth factors in experiential training groups through Tuckman’s conceptual model. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work. 43(3). pp.274-296.
Matei, M.C. and Abrudan, M.M., 2016. Adapting Herzberg’s two factor theory to the cultural context of Romania. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 221. pp.95-104.
Shane, J. and Heckhausen, J., 2019. Motivational theory of lifespan development. In Work across the lifespan (pp. 111-134). Academic Press.
Wood, J.M., and et.al., 2016. Organisational behaviour: Core concepts and applications. John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd..