Social Determinants of Health

Assessment 1:


The literature review discusses the current health status of the indigenous people of Australia who are the specified population in Australia. The literature review also discusses the social determinants which are identified for the influence of the health outcomes on the indigenous population of Australia. The social determinants which will be interacted with each other for impacting the health outcomes will also be discussed under the indigenous population of Australia (HealthInfoNet, et. al., 2019). Academic honesty and integrity for the indigenous population of Australia are also discussed in the literature review. The gap between the non-indigenous and indigenous group of Australia are having issues in the health sector.

The health status of Australian indigenous people

The health status of the Australian indigenous people is poor according to the literature review. The indigenous population of Australia includes the aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people who experience drastic health situation which is poorer than one can imagine. The younger people from the indigenous population are dying at an early age when compared with the other Australians (Schultz, et. al., 2019). The aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people experience high rates of mortality than the non-indigenous Australians due to the chronic diseases in this population which are drastically impacting the health conditions of the indigenous population of Australia. The health conditions of this population are due to the lack of various contributing factors which are very important for the development of healthy people such as nutrition, immunization, nutrition which is lacking in the indigenous population of Australia resulting in higher rates of mortality and lower life expectancy.

Social determinants and their influence on the health outcomes

The social determinants can impact or influence the health outcomes of the indigenous population of Australia who has lower rates for life expectancy due to poor health conditions. Social determinants like lack of education, racism, poverty, unequal access to health care are some of the factors which are responsible for the unequal opportunities in the area of health care for the indigenous Australian (HealthInfoNet, et. al., 2020). Various organizations work for the reduction of these various social determinants to equalize health care for all the people of Australia whether indigenous or non-indigenous. The poverty, lack of education in indigenous Australian creates barriers towards health care policies, and induces resistance in the indigenous population of Australia to keep their distance from these processes. This increases the influence of these determinants and results in poor health when compared with other Australians who are more likely to live.

How these social determinants interact with each other

Social determinants like poor socio-economic conditions, education levels, and employment levels interact with the financial conditions, family breakdown, crime, debt, poverty, social isolation, and homelessness which can affect the health care of the indigenous Australians (Griffiths, et. al., 2016). The indigenous Australians have suffered higher levels of domestic violence and injustice in the whole system which has impacted the health outcomes of this population. The various social determinants are interlinked and interact with each other on different levels of life which highly impact the mindset of the indigenous Australians as health care requires financial stability and employment for the families which does work in good conditions regarding the situations of indigenous Australians.


It can be concluded that the social determinants, their interaction with each other are adversely impacting and influencing the health outcomes for the indigenous Australians. Their life expectancy and mortality rate of younger generations are decreasing and increasing, respectively. This is the situation in which they should be provided with equality in the various situations of society as non-indigenous Australians are being provided with. The health outcomes need to be improved using the social determinants to increase health conditions. The various aspects of social determinants and their interaction with each other which influence the health outcomes for the indigenous Australians.

Academic integrity and honesty

This section will discuss the literature review and application that has been done for the assessment with total integrity. Academic integrity and honesty have been applied for the literature review of the indigenous Australians influencing social determinants of health outcomes. The literature review consists of the original content without any redundancy of the data and information for the assessment.

Policy brief

Policy options and implications

Improving hospital culture for indigenous Australians – the policies for the improvement of hospital culture for the indigenous Australians are required to be improved which will enhance the services provided to the aboriginal Australians who lack the knowledge about the health care facilities and its importance (Jayashantha, et. al., 2016). The situation of the health conditions in the indigenous Australians can be improved by enhancing the knowledge about health care and its importance which will influence the health outcomes of the younger generations who are more prone to getting a terminal disease from the outer world and have lesser life expectancy than the non-indigenous Australians.

Policy brief on sustainable development goals –sustainable development goals are the standard living milestone for humans all over the world. The indigenous Australians are living the adverse conditions where they are not provided with the basic facilities as decided by the world organization. The health outcomes, processes, and its importance for better knowledge about the health outcomes should be taught to this specific population of Australia which is underprivileged in health terms. The improved and advanced knowledge and facilities for indigenous Australians should be provided by the governmental institutions for the significance of the importance of health care and enhance the life expectancy of the people.

Recommendations for action

The policies and strategies need to be applied for the indigenous Australians who are suffering from the poor health crisis for a long period. The policies for the sustainable development goals should be provided for these people to enhance the health outcomes which are very important for the development and growth of these people who are having various conditions like chronic diseases which are impacting on the health conditions very adversely due to the lack of education and importance of health care for the indigenous population of Australia who is kept discriminated from the non-indigenous population of Australia (Shepherd, et. al., 2017). The underprivileged population should be provided with the basic fundamental rights under which they will improve their living standards and resolve the situation of health care in indigenous Australians.

Address the issues identified

The issues are identified in the assessment in which racism, inequality, stall generation and so more. The policies should be implemented for the improvement in the health outcomes of the indigenous people. The issues identified will be addressed in the situation for the improvement for the health enhancements and regarding the indigenous groups which will provide them with the services of health enhancement (Zambas, et. al., 2016). The polices should insist on the problems which are being faced by the indigenous Australians who are suffering from severe health issues as they are lacking in education and knowledge about health care and its importance which need to be improved as the younger generations in these populations are dying in an early age which is the major concern for the indigenous population of Australia. The addressed issues should be implemented with the enhancement of the change in the situation.

Assessment 2

Policy options and implications

Use sustainable development goals

As per the policy of sustainable development goals, it is important for the government is to focus on developing new strategies and tactics which help in improving indigenous people’s health and provide care to them. This is required for the authorities of Australia is to focus on maintaining and managing all the groups of people standards and provides them equal resources, services, facilities, tools, and healthcare equipment that can balance the standard of living within the country (Shephard, et. al., 2016).

NSW Health priorities

The main focus of NSW is to develop a healthy system and structure which is best suitable for the patients and improving their health. They also adopt the CORE values of collaboration, openness, respect, and empowerment. NSW works for enhancing the emphasis on health protection to avoid unnecessary hospitalization. NSW focus on taking advice and opinion of different patients and other people who face major disease and suffer for a long time. Implement the devolved governance structure in which decision is developed as close to the patient which is possible (Caffery, et. al., 2017). Besides this, they are getting strong evidence related to health and commitment to higher transparency and maintain public responsibility.

Australian long term health plan

The Australian government has developed an effective long-term plan named is National Health Plan that was released in August 2019. It includes the Ministry for health, Greg Hunt launch plan at the National press club. Such a plan is set for five areas to maintain concentration. Australian government mainly focus on providing safety, quality, and affordable living standard of people where different group of people can survive properly. The long-term plan of the Australian government is to get services of primary care facilities that delivered the best medicines and practitioners to every individual (Wall, 2018). This is considered as long term planning where they are delivering suitable care to the people in Australia.

Recommendations for action

The health issues in the indigenous population of Australia require major changes in the policies and strategies for the indigenous Australian’s health issues and care facilities. The policies like training and awareness programs of the indigenous Australians should be provided for enhancing knowledge about health care and its importance for these populations. The policies and strategies for hospitals should be enhanced in which free medication for the indigenous people should be provided. Social factors like poverty need to be reduced which is the major factor for the lack of health care knowledge in indigenous Australians and will provide more opportunities for health care.

How the recommendations will address the issues identified

The recommendations address the issues for the adverse situation of health care in the indigenous population of Australia. The issues for the lack of knowledge will be resolved using the recommendation for improvement of awareness among the indigenous Australians who lack education due to the various social determinants. These will be addressed by the strategies of government institutions under which employment and equality will be provided for the indigenous population of Australia. The issues will be resolved to some extent using the recommendations in which the indigenous Australians will be provided by the fundamental facilities using the equality process.

Assessment 3

SMART Project goals

The goal of the project understands the health position and status of Australian indigenous people (Hunt, et. al., 2015). It helps in analyzing the influences of social determinants on the health outcomes of a specific group of people. SMART project goals are described as under:

Specific: It is important for the government of Australia is to serve the best facilities and services related to health and care to indigenous people. The government focus on developing accurate strategies and policies for these group of people which help them in living their life with high standards and do not worry about anything (HealthInfoNet, et. al., 2020). The higher authorities of Australia are work on implementing such an action plan within the next 10 years.

Measurable: This can be measure when the government can identify and understand indigenous people’s requirements and solve their issues in a better manner. It is a major action that can be measure by using technologies and conduct a session where they ask people regarding what services they will get from healthcare agencies of government (Burns, et. al., 2015).

Attainable: With the help of using the latest technologies and equipment, they conduct a survey and understand indigenous people’s health-related problems and take necessary actions to recover such in limited time. Apart from this, it is difficult for volunteers are to convince indigenous people as they do not aware of any latest policies and not understand the wellbeing programs properly (Smith, et. al., 2020).

Relevant: The above attainable action and function are relevant and it assists in delivering the best facilities to such group of individuals properly and also improve their health. Any task will be relevant when workers make it real and perform hard to get accurate results or outcomes.

Time-bound: For the implementation of these actions, the government needs around 12-14 months to arrange and organize all the major resources, technologies, tools, methods, and staff members and equipment that can be used to manage entire functions (Rheault, et. al., 2019).

Demonstrate alignment with global goals and government priorities

It is analyzed that the government focuses on aligning with international goals in which they are taken corrective action for improving the health of an indigenous group of people. All the other countries also contact Australia regarding what action they have taken for developing and getting the correct health outcomes of such a group of individuals (Wylie, et. al., 2019). If entire nations perform work for improving their area’s indigenous people’s health then this will create a positive impact on the wellbeing of the people in the countries.

For improving the health and wellbeing of the indigenous people, the government had taken various steps that help them in increasing their living standards. It is examined that 1 July 2014, the Australian government developed the indigenous Australian health program (IAHP), along with consolidating four current streams such as primary healthcare, stronger futures in Northern Territory, maternal and child health programs, and common programs covered by the aboriginal and Torres straits (Johnson, et. al., 2015). The government has done various initiatives in which they designed to provide better access for indigenous people to health care facilities which are important to improving their health and reduces the danger. The major priorities of the government for these people are that they are providing them education and inform them regarding new policies which have been started by the government.

Description of tasks to implement recommendation

It is important for the Australian government is to perform such tasks and work which helps indigenous people in improving their health. The government should focus on analyzing all the policies which are required for indigenous people’s growth. The higher authority needs to eliminate racism, class division, and many other discrimination actions that make such a group of people realize that they are nothing and there is no importance of their style in society (Morgan, 2015). This will create a negative influence among them and by this, they lose confidence. For this, the Australian government requires to conduct awareness programs where volunteers should educate them regarding their rights and understand health-associated policies which are beneficial for them. It is also required for the government is to make effective plans and strategies through which they can easily convince them and evaluate their needs and wants in a better manner (Hartz, et. al., 2017). With the evaluation of their requirements, authorities and healthcare agencies can support in any situation and understand their views in such matters. It is suggested that government need to concentrate on formulating effective actions and functions for the indigenous people and they require taking appropriate decision-making processes. This is helpful for a specific group of people is to use new healthcare services and facilities which are introduced by the government for them in the betterment of health.

Demonstrate understanding of project deliverables

The project deliverable is that activity that is developed and provided as an outcome of the procedure. The main purpose of this project is to understand the key aspect which needs to be analyzed and examined in a better way. The Australian government requires evaluating the health status of the indigenous people and supporting them in their risky time. This is necessary for government and healthcare workers are to focus on analyzing the indigenous health outcomes and how they need to treat them (Sarfati, et. al., 2018). In this, social determinants and their impact on the health outcomes also identify which help indigenous people improvement actions. The social determinants such as stole generation and racism are mainly influencing the health results of the Australian indigenous people. Such a group of people has been facing huge racism from non-indigenous people. It will increase the stress level among them and it is the main factor of developing and enhancing health issues among such individuals. It is analyzed that there is no reduction in racism so far in Australia. The ratio of indigenous people is declining day by day which creates a major impact on the remaining indigenous group of individuals (Martinez, et. al., 2015). The level of racism has been enhanced the consumption of drugs as well among the group of specific people. The government identify which group of individual consume drugs and conduct awareness session in these areas only to educate them regarding this is harmful to their health and wellbeing.

Timeframes /milestones

The time frame of the project is very important as it is used to conduct each task and activity properly. The project manager needs to formulate the abilities to develop a correct period. It demonstrates what stages are already n the previous, what is the progress report, and what action needs to do for future results in a proper way. It is used to track and monitor the tasks and entire functions (Hopkins, et. al., 2015). The timeframe is important to identify common actions and functions that are regulated by the government for the indigenous people. 

Metrics to monitor and evaluate progress

It is important for the project manager is to monitor and evaluate the progress of each activity. For this, they need to develop an evaluation form that helps in identifying task roles and duties. Also, identify the performance measurement of employees who work for gaining accurate results and set feedback guidelines based on this they are taken feedbacks or response of team members (Wei, et. al., 2015). This is required for the government is to evaluate the indigenous people’s needs and wants according to this they can provide them services whichever they required. Metrics help in evaluating and understanding progress reports and track the actual position of the project and also compare the current project with other projects as well (MacLean, et. al., 2017). By this, they can improve existing project activities and add some features to gain higher growth. In addition to this, when the government implements some steps and initiatives so they need to regularly monitor and evaluate their activities. Metric is used to improving entire results and align the people or procedures with the desired goals (Jacklin, et. al., 2017).


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